12 ISE Magazine | www.iise.org/ISEmagazine
As many as 1 in 8 women in the U.S.
(13%) will be diagnosed with breast
cancer in their lifetime, according to the
American Cancer Society. There were
more than 300,000 positive diagnoses
in 2021.
In the battle to cure this deadly af-
iction, new articial intelligence tech-
nology may someday be used to better
spot tumors early, improving patient
outcomes.
The AI tool and computer program
designed by researchers from the De-
partment of Radiology at NYU Lan-
gone Health and its Laura and Isaac Perl-
mutter Cancer Center is trained to see
patterns among thousands of ultrasound
breast images to help physicians diag-
nose cancer accurately. Tests on 44,755
already completed ultrasound exams
showed the tool improved radiologists
ability to identify the disease by 37%,
while reducing the number of tissue
samples or biopsies needed to conrm
suspect tumors by 27%.
The teams analysis is believed to be
the largest of its kind. It involved 288,767
separate ultrasound exams taken from
143,203 women treated at NYU Lan-
gone hospitals between 2012 and 2018.
The teams report was published Sept. 24
in Nature Communications.
Our study demonstrates how arti-
ficial intelligence can help radiologists
reading breast ultrasound exams to
reveal only those that show real signs
of breast cancer and to avoid verifica-
tion by biopsy in cases that turn out
to be benign,” said senior investigator
Krzysztof Geras, an assistant profes-
sor in the Department of Radiology at
NYU Grossman School of Medicine
and a member of the Perlmutter Cancer
Center.
Ultrasounds are generally not used to
screen for breast cancer, though it can be
an alternative to mammography or used
as a follow-up diagnostic test for many
women, Geras said. Because it is cheaper
to operate, it is more widely available in
community clinics and does not expose
women to potentially harmful radiation.
It also can be better than mammography
for distinguishing tumors from healthy
cells.
Its downside is the high number of
false positive diagnoses that can result
in unnecessary procedures; many ultra-
sound findings indicating cancer turn
out to be benign after a biopsy is taken.
“If our efforts to use machine learning
as a triaging tool for ultrasound studies
prove successful, ultrasound could be-
come a more effective tool in breast can-
cer screening, especially as an alternative
to mammography, and for those with
dense breast tissue,” said radiologist Lin-
da Moy, M.D, the study co-investigator,
a professor at NYU Grossman School of
Medicine and a member of the Perlmut-
ter Cancer Center. “Its future impact on
improving womens breast health could
be profound.
In the study, over half of ultrasound
breast examinations were used to cre-
ate the computer program. A team of 10
radiologists then reviewed a separate set
of 663 breast exams, with an average ac-
curacy of 92%. When aided by the AI
model, their average accuracy improved
to 96% in diagnosing breast cancer. All
diagnoses were checked against tissue
biopsy results.
Yet Geras cautions that clinical tri-
als are needed in current patients and in
real-world conditions before the AI tool
can be fully deployed. He plans to rene
the AI software to factor in patient in-
formation such as family history or ge-
netic mutations of breast cancer.
News from the field
The front line
AI tool shows promise in diagnosing breast cancer
NYU study has shown accurate results taken from ultrasounds
January 2022 | ISE Magazine 13
The emotional and physical ordeal endured by nurses caring
for COVID-19 patients has been in the spotlight during the
height of the pandemic. A new article by researchers at the
University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nurs-
ing) shows just how acute their moral distress has been.
The researchers sought to close knowledge gaps about the
types of and degree of moral distress experienced by nurses,
the factors associated with moral distress during the pandem-
ic and its relation to longer-term mental health.
They found that situations related specifically to COV-
ID-19 were most distressing, including concerns over trans-
mission risks to nurses’ family members, caring for patients
without family members present and caring for dying pa-
tients who had no family or clergy present.
“We found that COVID-19 patient care volume and per-
sonal protective equipment (PPE) workarounds increased
moral distress, while effective leadership communication de-
creased it and improved post-surge mental health,” said lead
author Eileen T. Lake, the Jessie M. Scott Endowed Term
Chair in Nursing and Health Policy, professor of nursing
and sociology and associate director of the Center for Health
Outcomes and Policy Research at Penn Nursing. “Given the
lingering negative effects on nurses suffering moral distress
during a crisis, our findings should motivate and provide
guidance for leaders in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic
and future crises.
The study included co-authors Kathleen E. Fitzpatrick
Rosenbaum, Rachel French and Rebecca Clark, all of Penn
Nursing; Aliza Narva and Sara Holland, both of Penn Medi-
cine; Jessica Smith of the University of Texas; Emily Cramer
of the University of Kansas Medical Center; and Jeannette
Rogowski of The Pennsylvania State University. It was sup-
ported by the National Institute of Nursing Research, Na-
tional Institutes of Health.
Measuring the pandemic’s distress toll on nurses
Penn Nursing research delves into effects of COVID-19 on caregivers
To date, most efforts at reducing carbon
levels in the atmosphere have been to
control how much is released into the
air. A new effort seeks to pull out car-
bon that is already in the atmosphere.
The largest direct air capture plant
in the world opened Sept. 8 in Iceland.
The plant, called Orca, is operated by
Climeworks, a Swiss startup, and aims
to remove some 4,000 tonnes of carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere each year,
roughly the equivalent emissions of 870
cars or 9,281 consumed barrels of oil,
according to the United States Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency green-
house gas calculator.
The plant will boost total global di-
rect air capture capacity by about 50%,
adding to the dozen or so smaller plants
operating in Europe, Canada and the
U.S.
The plant consists of eight boxes
about the size of shipping containers,
each fitted with a dozen fans that pull
in air. The CO₂ is filtered out, mixed
with water and pumped into deep un-
derground wells, where over the course
of a few years it turns to stone, effec-
tively removing it from circulation in
the atmosphere.
Climeworks is also looking to cre-
ate a business model for the direct air
capture industry with plans to sell the
captured CO₂ to manufacturers as raw
material for cement and other products.
Orca will likely soon be topped by
competing projects in the U.S. and
Scotland that are expected to come on-
line in the next two years. But without
more public and private investment, the
industry wont be able to reach the goal
of 10 million tons per year of carbon
removed from the atmosphere that the
International Energy Agency says are
needed by 2030.
Carbon-sucking machine goes online in Iceland
Device by Swiss startup Climeworks draws CO
2
from atmosphere
Swiss startup Climeworks has opened a new plant in Iceland called Orca that draws CO
2
from the atmosphere.
Photo courtesy of Climeworks
14 ISE Magazine | www.iise.org/ISEmagazine
Innovation in plant-based meat products is grow-
ing in popularity but may not satisfy all tastes.
Now there’s another option by Upside Foods,
which is working to grow “cultivated meat” from
animal cells in bioreactors at its 53,000-square-
foot facility in Emeryville, California. The com-
pany’s goal is to produce meat that replicates the
taste and texture of natural meat without concern
over diseases or affecting the environment or ani-
mals.
The focus in the last five years for the industry
has been really to show that the science works,
said Uma Valeti, Upside Foods CEO and founder.
The next phase is all about how you bring prod-
ucts out of the lab into industrial scale.
The machines can produce different types of meat by feed-
ing muscle cells that grow and multiply. The company will
begin with ground meats and work to perfect the process of
producing whole cuts, which are more complex to create. It
can grow chicken, beef, duck and other meat tissues and pro-
duce 50,000 pounds of finished products per year.
The technology began by producing small-scale samples
for the pharmaceutical industry. Valeti is a cardiologist who
started the company in 2015 after seeing the effects of diet on
patients with heart disease.
“Whats happened in the last five years, is unlike anything
that’s ever happened in the food industry,” Valeti says. “Now
we know there’s nearly 100 companies across the world, in
nearly every meat-producing and meat-consuming country,
the frontlinethe front line
Cultivated meat’ coming to a store near you?
California company’s lab-grown meat seeks government approval
A sample of a chicken sandwich with meat produced by Upside Foods in its
bioreactor laboratories in California. Cultivated meat is not yet approved
for sale in the U.S.
Photo courtesy of Upside Foods
Quote, unquote
Driverless vehicles arent around the corner
There’s an incredible amount of confusion in the general public around the context of self-driving. In our survey data here,
about 23% of respondents believe that a self-driving vehicle is available for purchase today. ... The reality is today’s infrastruc-
ture is not well equipped for autonomy. In essence, potholes, poor lane markings, and all the other crumbling aspects of our
nations infrastructure arent going to support high-tech well. ... The timeline to driverless technology changing how I live
and move is probably in the order of several decades, if not further away.
— Bryan Reimer, research scientist at MIT
I’d say within the decade its gonna be on highways, but if we’re talking about being able to take your car wherever you want
across the United States, being able to travel through New York City and sleep the whole time, I dont think we’re anywhere
close to that. Probably several decades away from that.
— Ayoub Aouad, senior research analyst for Business Insider. Both were commenting for a Business Insider video on the advancement of
autonomous vehicles.
trying to do cultivated meat.
The cost of cultivating meat remains an issue on a large
scale, but Valeti believes it can match the cost of traditional
meat within the next decade once the process earns regula-
tory approval to ramp up production. Singapore was the first
to approve lab-grown meat. A facility also opened last year
in Israel.
That type of acceleration has never happened in food,
especially for a completely new space,” Valeti said. “We also
know that nearly every major food and ag university program
is starting undergrad and postgraduate courses in this because
there’s such an interest in this area from students who want
to be a part of this type of food system. Every major meat
producer has invested in a company like ours.
tx.ag/ProfessionalMasters
Dr. Joseph Geunes, Program Director, geunes@tamu.edu
Marquita Adrian, Program Specialist, amadrian@tamu.edu
Face-to-Face Professional
Master’s Program in Houston
The Texas A&M University Professional Master of Science in
Engineering Management degree program will be oered
on weekends in Houston starting in fall 2022!
This program is designed for working professionals
pursuing a career in managing engineering systems and
organizations. Learn analytic and advanced decision
methods directly from renowned faculty in a nationally
ranked department and college of engineering, while
developing a network consisting of engineering
professionals throughout the greater Houston area.
Why Texas A&M University?
Because it’s convenient
We work around your schedule
by delivering the program on
weekends in Houston
Because of the reputation
Texas A&M’s College of Engineering is
a top 10 public graduate engineering
school with a strong national
reputation
Texas A&M Aggie Network has nearly
400,000 current and former students,
and is one of the largest and most
active in the world
Because of the education
and skills you’ll gain
Data analytics, optimization,
economic, and risk management
models and methods for complex
decision making
Lean, project management,
leadership and management
approaches for technical
organizations
Professional Master of Science in
Engineering Management
21 MONTHS TO COMPLETE • FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION ON WEEKENDS IN HOUSTON • STARTING FALL 2022
January 2022 | ISE Magazine 15
tx.ag/ProfessionalMasters
Dr. Joseph Geunes, Program Director, geunes@tamu.edu
Marquita Adrian, Program Specialist, amadrian@tamu.edu
Face-to-Face Professional
Master’s Program in Houston
The Texas A&M University Professional Master of Science in
Engineering Management degree program will be oered
on weekends in Houston starting in fall 2022!
This program is designed for working professionals
pursuing a career in managing engineering systems and
organizations. Learn analytic and advanced decision
methods directly from renowned faculty in a nationally
ranked department and college of engineering, while
developing a network consisting of engineering
professionals throughout the greater Houston area.
Why Texas A&M University?
Because it’s convenient
We work around your schedule
by delivering the program on
weekends in Houston
Because of the reputation
Texas A&M’s College of Engineering is
a top 10 public graduate engineering
school with a strong national
reputation
Texas A&M Aggie Network has nearly
400,000 current and former students,
and is one of the largest and most
active in the world
Because of the education
and skills you’ll gain
Data analytics, optimization,
economic, and risk management
models and methods for complex
decision making
Lean, project management,
leadership and management
approaches for technical
organizations
Professional Master of Science in
Engineering Management
21 MONTHS TO COMPLETE • FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION ON WEEKENDS IN HOUSTON • STARTING FALL 2022
16 ISE Magazine | www.iise.org/ISEmagazine
One cause for the backlog suffered by supply chains in 2021
was a shortage of over-the-road truck drivers. A report re-
leased in October by the American Trucking Association
estimated that the industry is short a record 80,000 drivers,
which could double by 2030 as more retire.
But one solution might be in the ofng from those who
have already moved on from other professions: New truck-
ers over age 50. The average age of an over-the-road driver
is 46 years old, according to a 2019 report from the ATA as
reported by FreightWaves.
The average age of a new truck driver being trained is 35.
The trucking industry currently has about 2 million drivers,
according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
A new influx of older truckers could help ease the strain
on carriers going into 2022. For seniors who like the free-
dom of the open road and are looking for second careers to
ll their time, it’s an ideal fit. That describes Idaho resident
Laura Reny, 70, who has been driving since her husband
died in 2014.
“I enjoy truck driving, I tell a lot of people that it’s a good
job for women and old people, and I’m both,” Reny said.
“It was just time for me to do something else and I always
like driving,” said Ed Falls, 57, who retired after 30 years as
high school band director and started driving full time two
years ago. “I like over-the-road stuff. I like the freedom.
For empty nesters who still want to be productive, truck-
ing is an attractive option.
“If I was younger and I still had children at home, I would
not do it,” said John Albert, 69, who started driving when
he was 55.
Prime Inc., a Springfield, Missouri-based refrigerated,
atbed, tanker and logistics trucking company, has more
than 8,000 drivers and on the lookout for more. Each week,
more than 120 student drivers begin orientation at Prime to
earn their Class A commercial drivers licenses.
“I do see plenty of 50-year-olds starting. For the most part,
it’s guys in their early 20s that are getting started, just what
you would expect,” said Travis Bacon, manager of driver
recruiting at Prime. “We do occasionally see 50-year-olds,
sometimes older, maybe a guy or two every week.
Many older drivers are attracted by the money. Reny
works as a long-haul truck driver for GLS Carriers, driving
as much as 13,500 miles a month and earning about $75,000
a year. She has hauled loads through all lower 48 states and
in every weather condition, driven by the earning potential.
Because I had no savings and Social Security is only like
$1,500 a month, with my house payment and other stuff, that
would be tough to live on,” Reny said.
Albert said he made more money in the last 14 years as a
trucker than he did the previous 30 years working in other
industries.
The very first year I started driving I made $55,000, and
I’ve probably made a million dollars gross pay in 14 years
driving a truck,” Albert said.
the frontlinethe front line
Older truckers could help ease supply gridlock
Many drivers over 50 begin new careers on the road hauling cargo
Study: Follow-up doc visits vary little by type
Whether a patient made an appointment with their primary care physician by video, by phone or in person doesnt seem
to affect the number of follow-up visits they sought, a Kaiser Permanente study shows. The research published Nov. 16
in JAMA Network Open found that about a quarter (25.4%) of patients with video visits had a follow-up within seven
days compared to 26% of telephone visits and 24.5% of in-person clinic visits. “This study answers the previously open
question about whether video and phone visits are less efficient because the bulk of patients might have to come to the
clinic anyway to resolve their clinical issue,” said lead author Mary Reed, a research scientist with the Kaiser Permanente
Division of Research. The researchers compared what happened during the visits and found some differences. Medication
was prescribed more often in the clinic, in 60% of visits compared with 38.6% by video and 34.7% by telephone.
Laboratory tests or imaging were ordered in 59.3% of office visits, compared with 29.2% of video visits and 27.3% of
telephone visits. The study examined 2.2 million primary care video, telephone and in-person visits scheduled online
by Kaiser Permanente members in Northern California between 2016 and mid-2018. Of those, 14% were for phone
and video visits. “Video visits offer a convenient, time-efficient way for patients to be physically examined by their
physician,” said co-author Emilie Muelly, M.D., an internal medicine physician with The Permanente Medical Group.
“In many cases virtual care is adequate to guide clinical diagnosis and management.
Prime NumberS
January 2022 | ISE Magazine 17
Artificial intelligence and machine learning have changed industries worldwide, and healthcare is no
exception. The increased application of AI techniques such as deep learning, computer vision, natural
language processing and robotics have enhanced the delivery and quality of care, which is why many
governments and health authorities have prioritized its innovation. In his 2021 book, Articial Intel-
ligence Applications in Healthcare Delivery, editor Sandeep Reddy, an associate professor at the Deakin
School of Medicine at Deakin University in Geelong, Australia, and an academic and certified health
informatician, looks at the various ways the technology is being applied to diagnose and treat a
multitude of conditions. The book digs deeper to explore AI application in medicine, population
health, genomics, healthcare administration and delivery methods. Healthcare professionals and
managers will find the book instructive to how different types of AI are applied to healthcare delivery with numerous
examples. The topics featured from expert authors include algorithmic medicine, screening for diseases, drug discovery,
mammograms, data science and clinical trials.
Articial Intelligence Applications in Healthcare Delivery is published by Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, $39.95.
Say ‘aaah AI’ for healthcare innovation
Book explores various applications of machine learning in care, delivery
Book of the Month
The newest branch of the U.S. armed forces has signed a part-
nership with one of the nations top engineering universities to
boost aerospace research and workforce.
U.S. Space Force and Georgia Tech signed a memorandum
of understanding Nov. 11, Veterans Day. Georgia Tech joins the
military branchs University Partnership Program. The agree-
ment was signed by Lt. General Nina M. Armagno, the U.S.
Space Force director of staff, along with Georgia Tech Provost
Steven W. McLaughlin and Executive Vice President for Re-
search Chaouki T. Abdallah.
At the heart of the Space Force’s University Partnership Pro-
gram is the need to advance our science and technology to build
the next generation of space capabilities, while developing the
workforce of the future,” Armagno said on gatech.edu. “With its
reputation as a leader in cutting-edge aerospace research, we are
confident that Georgia Tech will be an outstanding partner.
Georgia Tech is among 11 universities joining the Space
Force partnership along with Howard University, MIT, North
Carolina A&T State University, Purdue University, University
of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Springs, Univer-
sity of North Dakota, University of Southern California, Uni-
versity of Texas at Austin and University of Texas at El Paso.
Each university was based on four criteria: the quality of
STEM degree offerings and space-related research; ROTC
program strength; student population diversity; and degrees and
programs designed to support military members, veterans and
their families seeking degrees.
Georgia Tech is honored to be selected as a Space Force Uni-
versity Partnership School, and we look forward to collaborating
in educating leaders for the aerospace workforce of the future,
McLaughlin said. “I am condent that we will continue to drive
technological advancements for the U.S. Space Force, just as we
have done for NASA and the Department of Defense.
Georgia Tech, others join Space Force STEM team
New U.S. military branch partnerships aim to build trained workforce, research
Officials from Georgia Tech and the U.S. Space Force signed an
agreement for a strategic partnership to develop a high-caliber
aerospace workforce and collaborate on advanced aerospace
research. The signing ceremony included, from left, Lt. General
Nina M. Armagno, the U.S. Space Force director of staff;
Georgia Tech Executive Vice President for Research Chaouki T.
Abdallah; and Provost Steven W. McLaughlin.
Photo courtesy of Georgia Tech
18 ISE Magazine | www.iise.org/ISEmagazine
Digital solutions to societal and urban
challenges were the focus of discussions
at last year’s Smart City Expo World
Congress Nov. 16-18 in Barcelona,
Spain.
More than 14,000 attendees and
452 exhibitors from 120 countries and
400 cities shared ideas on urban trans-
formation by emphasizing resiliency,
sustainability and livability in a post-
pandemic landscape. The hybrid event
also included more than 21,000 digital
attendees. The 2020 World Congress
was held in a virtual-only format due
to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The urban innovation ecosystem
needed to reconnect after 18 months of
restrictions and difficulties,” said Ugo
Valenti, director of Smart City Expo
World Congress.
The expo included presentations on
urban challenges divided into eight
main themes: enabling technologies,
energy & environment, mobility, gov-
ernance, living & inclusion, economy,
infrastructure & buildings, and safety
& security. Keynote speakers included
Carlos Moreno, scientist and Mayor of
Paris Special Envoy for Smart Cities;
Jeff Merrit, Head of Urban Transfor-
mation at the World Economic Forum
who was the first Director of innova-
tion of the city of New York; and María
Fernanda Espinosa, former President of
the United Nations General Assembly.
Technology is a critical underpin-
ning to make the economy green,
inclusive and resilient. It’s critical for
helping the post-COVID recovery,
said Sameh Wahba – global director,
Urban, Disaster Risk Management,
Resilience & Land Global Practice for
the World Bank
“It’s so important for all of us to
come together to talk about the unique
opportunities and the challenges we
have. This is the one place we get to
do it every year, where we have the top
conversations and we have the ability to
think about how to solve them togeth-
er,” said Cassie Roach, vice president,
Global Public Sector for CISCO.
“We are at a pivotal moment of re-
covery. We need people-centered
smart cities.” added Maimunah Sharif,
executive director of UN-Habitat.
Buenos Aires, Argentina, was cho-
sen winner of the Smart City of 2021
award for its solid waste management
plan.
The 2022 gathering is scheduled for
Nov. 15 -17.
the frontlinethe front line
Smarter cities are the focus of Barcelona event
Annual Expo Congress returns to in-person format
© 2020 Scott Adams, Inc. Used by permission of Andrews McMeel Syndication. All rights reserved.
Dilbert
The 2021 edition of Smart City World Expo Congress brought together more than 14,000
attendees Nov. 16-18 in Barcelona, Spain, to hear hundreds of speakers and exhibitors
share the latest ideas in urban transformation through technology.
Photo courtesy of Smart City Expo World Congress
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Georgia Tech