Engineering and Design

Alternative foot brake location on user perceptions and performance

by Jihun Kang, Kari Babski-Reeves, John A. McGinley
Despite a large body of research on automotive interior design issues, brake pedal design issues have been largely ignored. Current automotive models have brake pedal adjustability features that allow the pedal to move up and down and forward and backward depending on driver preferences and anthropometry. However, drivers that operate the brake pedal with their left foot are at a distinct disadvantage with current brake locations. The current placement forces left foot drivers into non-optimal postures potentially impeding their reaction time, thereby increasing the required stopping distance. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of alternative brake pedal locations on performance and user perceptions of discomfort and usability while performing simulated driving tasks. Results from this study will be used to develop preliminary recommendations on alternative brake pedal locations to improve driver performance. View presentation

Are DHM and MOCAP really reliable and valid for ergonomics?

by Tinghao Wu, Vincent G. Duffy, Keith White, John A. McGinley
This study focused on identifying the reliability and validity of digital human modeling (DHM) and optical motion capture (MOCAP) for ergonomic assessments. Participants performed six assembly line tasks twice in both real and virtual environments. Motion was tracked and analyzed with UGS-PLM Solutions - Jack. Notably, 48 of 51 reliability index scores are above 0.8. Results indicate this integration is reliable and valid for ergonomic assessments for lifting and workstation pushing/pulling tasks. View presentation 

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner: Design for manufacturing ergonomics

by David Smith, Robert Verginia
A concerted program is underway to incorporate ergonomics principles into the 787 airplane design and associated build processes. These large wide-body commercial airplanes, built primarily by hand, have many inherent ergonomic risks. Associated historical injury rates are typically high and costly. Little has been done to address the risks imposed on assembly personnel. This presentation will address the concurrent design philosophy of the 787 and how ergonomic requirements are being levied on the program and the impacts these requirements are having on product and process design. View presentation 

Creative ergonomic solutions to problem components in an overhaul facility

by Leah Stephens
All maintenance operations have those components that continually cause worker safety concerns. This shop floor case study will provide examples of ergonomic solutions to problem components as they travel through different shops and processes at the Corpus Christi Army Depot. It will provide examples of how ergonomics can be used in lean initiatives to reduce wasted motions and improve worker safety at a maintenance and overhaul facility. The presentation will also show how to justify ergonomic improvements by showing productivity gains. View presentation 

Ergonomic design criteria development

by Holly Wick
This presentation is a discussion of the strategy for development of corporate ergonomic design criteria. The criteria is to be used in the engineering design of new manufacturing equipment and processes. Highlights of the presentation include how user group needs were determined using the "voice of the customer" techniques; how types of criteria were selected; design of a companion assessment tool; creation of training regarding the design criteria and assessment tool; marketing of the criteria to management, engineers and EHS personnel; and development of criteria into a corporate standard.

An ergonomic assessment tool was licensed for use throughout a Fortune 500 corporation to assess existing production operations. Concurrently, EHS performance metrics were developed requiring all manufacturing locations to eliminate ergonomic risk. A set of criteria (based on the assessment tool) was also developed to guide engineers in designing new or modified equipment for low ergonmic risk exposure. This presentation outlines how the ergonomic design criteria was developed and packaged for use in the engineering community of the corporation. View presentation 

Ergonomic design modifications of space program hardware

by Judy Damoff, Juan Posada, Kristine Relvini
Processing one of a kind space shuttle payloads and International Space Station hardware requires unique handling. Pushing, pulling, positioning, lifting, moving, and handling hardware means the employees at Kennedy Space Center may push their bodies to the limit and find themselves in awkward postures with prolonged kneeling, bending, and twisting. This may lead to an injury that can be avoided with simple design changes. Some of the equipment or processes included are as follows:

  • Internal thermal control servicer (ITCS): weighs over 1,630 lbs. empty and when loaded weighs approximately 3,000 lbs. This piece of equipment was being moved by five technicians "by hand."
  • Fastener starter tool
  • Hatch restraint device
  • Ammonia panel servicer cart

The departments involved were:

  • Human factors engineering: performed assessment, made recommendations and assisted with implementation of solutions
  • Design engineers (in some cases): worked with human factors to prepare drawings of design modifications
  • Technicians: assisted with actual modifications
  • Procurement: purchase of parts and supplies

This is a portion of the industrial ergonomics program that performs human factors assessments as a result of identified ergonomic risk, an injury, illness, mishap, or close call. The industrial program was formally initiated in 2004. Before2004, the ergonomics program consisted of primarily workstation assessments, some awareness activities, and tracking of the occurrence of injuries and illnesses. View presentation 

Ergonomic design review: Implementing a comprehensive process

by David Davis, Mike Van Winkle
One of the most proactive and effective approaches to the reduction of musculoskeletal disorders is to integrate good ergonomics into new facility design. This presentation will detail a comprehensive ergonomic design review process implemented at Eli Lilly and Company. Practical guidance will be provided regarding the development of a design review template, the logistics of conducting an actual design review, and the training program for project engineers. View presentation 

Ergonomics as applied for design of technology for individuals with disabilities

by Jeffrey Daniel, Stephen Sundarrao, Lexander Reina
Traditionally ergonomics has been concerned with the prevention of injuries and preservation of health. However, it is important that emphasis is placed on the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities working and participating in all environments. Although many practioners may receive basic human factors concepts, many are not exposed to workstation design, person-machine communication (displays, controls), and design modifications for individuals with disabilities. This presentation aims to increase the fundamental theoretical concepts of ergonomics for these environments as well as provide evaluation tools and methodologies to recommend intervention of rehabilitation technology. View presentation 

The ergonomics of patient handling equipment design: Enhancing caregiver and patient safety

by Lynda Enos
One of the key components to successful safe patient handling programs in any health care environment is knowing how to choose the right equipment to match the task, patient characteristics, and design of the facility. This presentation provides participants with information on how to choose patient handling equipment that meets this goal. Evaluating equipment for the best safety and ergonomic features that enhance caregiver and patient safety is explored and tips on successful purchase and installation of patient handling equipment discussed. View presentation 

Ergonomics of urban public passengers transportation

by Miguel Márquez, Jesus Macey Garcia
The design of transport means has progressed considerably, mainly in the area of the comfort and security of the passengers. In diverse European countries, the United States,and many others there are standards in place to prevent accidents and to assure the minimum conditions of comfort of the users. On the other hand, the population of users varies in terms of age, stature, weight, and mobility must be considered during the design of transport units. The extreme cases are represented by those people of greater size, individuals with physical limitations, and especially the elderly and infantile segments of population that by nature are most prone to accidents. The necessity to consider the voice of the clients was determined and it is recommended to make use of the principles of universal design in the conception of public transport units design. View presentation | View paper 

Integrating risk reduction stratagies with Six Sigma and lean

by Paul Gilkinson, Wayne Maynard, Paul Myers
This presentation will provide the participants with a picture of an integrated process where quality, waste, and risk are equal aspects of the decision making process. The result of an integrated approach is that your company can become the employer of choice, the investment of choice, and the neighbor of choice. View presentation 

Measuring insertion forces of flexible hose

by Phillip Drinkaus
This presentation describes the equipment, methodology, and results of a study which used a programmable mill to emulate insertion methodologies used to insert flexible tubing onto flanges observed in automobile assembly plants. Understanding the forces required to insert a hose, independent of worker variation, is important for engineers, designers, and health professionals. This presentation describes a machine testing system for measuring hose insertion forces to control for inter-subject variability. The machine system was used to investigate the effect of four variables: flange size, insertion and rotational velocity, and oscillation magnitude, on hose insertion force. The results show that the magnitude of the interference of the 19 mm ID heater hose and the flange and the insertion technique affect the insertion forces; from 11.1 ±0.2 N to 128.4 ±11.3 N. The coefficient of variation for the maximum insertion forces ranged from 2 to 23 percent. View presentation 

Motion analysis and its use in product design and evaluation

by Scott Openshaw, Erin Taylor
Motion analysis is a state-of-the-art, high resolution, motion capture system that allows researchers to observe the movement of people and objects in an environment. Many times motion analysis is used for animation and movies, but it can also be used for product design and evaluation. This session will discuss the technology of motion analysis and tools that can be used along with it in research. The session will offer a few practical examples of how to apply this technology in product design and evaluation. View presentation 

Pilot study on reach extents of underrepresented populations

by David Ringholz
This presentation discusses the methodology, analysis, and results of a pilot study conducted to measure the reach extents of a broad range of individuals. The research program focuses on the impact of standing workstation height on reach extents of users with various circumstantial and physical limitations. The resulting data will be used to guide future research and inform design recommendations for workstations in order to accommodate diverse populations. View Paper 

Postural effects of monocular display augmented laser digitizing

by Neil Littell, Kari Babskie Reeves
This presentation will discuss augmentation of an industrial, articulated, arm-based laser digitizer to improve the ergonomics conditions related to use of the system. The augmented display is used to display relevant information in the direct field of view of the user, eliminating the need for the user to shift visual focus back and forth between the digitized object and the computer monitor. The traditional system will be discussed and compared to the augmented set-up. Motion capture-based ergonomic analysis of both systems will be discussed and findings will be presented. View presentation 

A primer for assessing, interpreting, and controlling occupational vibration exposure

by Tom Albin
Vibration exposure is well documented as a risk factor for occupational injuries and illnesses, but is not as readily assessed as other risk factors. Quantitative assessment of vibration requires specialized equipment to which ergonomic practitioners often don't have access or with which they are not familiar. It ispossible to make good decisions using proxy"measurements such as data supplied by the manufacturer or a reputable third party. This presentation is intended to provide a basic introduction the topic of vibration, types of vibration, how it is measured directly and indirectly (by proxy), how the risk of exposure is assessed and typical strategies to control the exposure. View presentation 

User interface design, testing and validation of mobile terminals

by Chandra Nair
This presentation will provide an overview of how a human factors practitioner interacts and interfaces with a product design team throughout the development process. A case study will be presented focusing on the design and development of a ruggedized mobile scanning terminal for enterprise level applications, with an emphasis on user interface testing and validation as it relates to scanner design, function and placement of action buttons, and keypad behavior. View presentation 

Virtual grasping assessment using 3-D digital hand model

by Yui Endo, Satoshi Kanai, Takeshi Kishinami, Natsuki Miyata, Makiko Kouchi and Masaaki Mochimaru
The authors havedeveloped a simulator which evaluates the stability and ease of a human's ability to grasp handheld data appliances such as digital cameras. In the simulator, 3-D digital hand models is integrated with the 3-D CAD models of the appliance to determine the virtual grasping assessment. Simulator features include:

  • Geometrically accurate 3-D digital hand models with rich Japanese size varieties used for the assessment
  • A semi-automatic grasp planning function installed to efficiently find appropriate grasp posture for the exterior housing geometries of appliances
  • Stability of grasping quantitatively evaluated based on the "force-closure" and the "grasp quality" indices
  • Ease of grasping qualitatively evaluated based on "comfort database" constructed from the PCA for measurements of finger joint angles of real subjects

View paper 

A voice based control and command system for emergency applications

by William Lenharth
This presesntation will describe the basic design principles of Project54, a fully integrated, voice activated computer system for public safety officers. The voice system will discussed in the context of its detailed design with emphasis placed on flexibility, reliability, and standards. The Project54 system is in use daily in over 1,000 police and fire vehicles through out the United States. The project is funded by the U.S. DOJ and the software is available at a low cost. The total P54 costs can be as low as $1,500 per vehicle. View presentation 

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