Z94.12.5 Metal Machining

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ULTRAPRECISION MACHINING. Machining process that produces surface finish in the tens of nanometer (10-9m) range, and form accuracies in the µm range or better. The process now uses cutting tools made exclusively of a single crystal diamond, hence the process is also called diamond turning. Applications are seen in manufacturing optical mirrors, computer memory disks, and drum for photo-copying machines. The workpiece materials used to date include copper allouys, aluminum alloys, silver, gold, electroless nickel and plastics (acrylics).

ULTRASONIC MACHINING. The removal of material by high frequency vibration of a tool that imparts energy to abrasive grains introduced between the tool and the workpiece by a slurry. The abrasive crystals then impart hammer blows to the workpiece in removing minute particles of unwanted material.

UNILATERAL TOLERANCE. The form in which variation is permitted in only one direction from the basic size. (See TOLERANCE, BILATERAL TOLERANCE.)

UNIT POWER CONSUMPTION. For each different material to be machined, a measure of the power required is the unit horsepower (uhp), also called specific power consumption (shp). It is defined as the horsepower required to remove one cubic inch of the material in one minute.

UNIVERSAL DIVIDING HEAD. An accessory for milling machines. It is a fixture that rotates the workpiece to specified angles between individual machining steps. Typical uses are in milling parts with polygonal surfaces and in machining gear teeth.

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