Z94.12.5 Metal Machining

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CEMENTED CARBIDES. Also known as carbides, are basically composed of carbides with a binder. They are the most commonly used cutting tool materials.

CENTERLESS GRINDING. The generation of a finished cylindrical outside diameter by rotating the workpiece between the grinding wheel and the regulating wheel while constrained by the work rest.

CENTER MOUNTED GRINDING. The generation of finished external cylindrical surfaces on workpieces mounted between centers.


CERMETS. Combinations of metals and ceramics, bonded together in the same manner in which powder metallurgy parts are produced. A typical cermet cutting tool insert is 70% Al2O3 and 30% TiC.

CHAMFER ANGLE. The degree of angle wanted for a given chamfer. A chamfer eliminates a sharp corner on the cutting edge.

CHIP. In metal cutting, the metal is removed from the workpiece in the form of chips.

CHIPBREAKER. Means of abrupt diversion of removed metal at the point of cutting causing breakage of a potential string into chips of manageable size.

CHISEL EDGE ANGLE (WEB ANGLE). Both of these terms refer to the angle of the section of the drill between the two cutting edges at the drill point.

CHUCKING INTERNAL GRINDING. The generation of finished internal surfaces on workpieces mounted in chucking devices that provide rotation of the workpiece.

CLEARANCE FIT. A fit between mating parts having limits of size so prescribed that a clearance always results in assembly.

COOLANTS. Usually fluids (sometimes compressed air or paste) to act as temperature reduction agents in machining operations.

COUNTERBORING. Special drills are used to enlarge the top part of a hole.

COUNTERSINKING. Special drills are used to produce a conical shape on the top part of a hole.

CRATER WEAR. Wear on the top (rake) face of the cutting tool which is mainly due to the sliding of the chip.

CREEP GRINDING. Grinding operation utilizing slow feed rates but heavy depth of cut.

CRUSH FORM GRINDING. The grinding of irregular cross sections by a grinding wheel whose face has been formed by feeding a crusher roll against the grinding wheel while rotating at a considerably slower speed than those employed in grinding.

CUBIC BORON NITRIDE (CBN). A super abrasive hard crystal produced by a high-pressure high temperature process similar to that used to make synthetic diamonds. CBN crystals are used most commonly in super abrasive wheels for grinding. The crystals are also compacted to produce polycrystalline cutting tools in the form of inserts. "Borozon'' is a G. E. trade name.

CUTTING FLUIDS. Coolants and different liquids used in the cutting operation mainly to reduce the cutting temperature and friction. (See COOLANTS.)

CUTTING FORCE. The force acting normal on the tool during a cutting operation. The force caused by the resistance of the workpiece to being cut.

CUTTING RATIO. The ratio of the chip thickness prior to entering the shear zone and its thickness after passing through the shear zone.

CUTTING TOOL ANGLES. Different angles on the cutting edge of the tool to facilitate the cutting and the sliding of the chip and reduce friction; (cutting edge angles, rake angles, relief angles, clearance angles). 

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