Z94.12.4 Metal Forming

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ADJUSTABLE BED. The bed or table of a gap-frame press, such as a horn press, which is bolted to the vertical front surface of the press. It is supported and adjusted (up and down) by means of a screw or screws usually operated by hand. This term also refers to the bed of a large straight-side press mounted and guided in the press frame and provided with a suitable mechanism, usually power operated, for varying the die space shut height. Adjustable-bed presses are also referred to as knee-type presses.

ADJUSTABLE STROKE. The capability of varying the length of a stroke on a press.

ADJUSTMENT SLIDE. The distance that a press slide position can be altered to change the shutheight of the die space. The adjustment may be by hand or by power mechanism.

AGE HARDENING. A process of aging that increases hardness and strength and ordinarily decreases ductility. Age hardening usually follows rapid cooling or cold working.

AIR-HARDENING STEEL. An alloy steel that is hardened by cooling in air from a temperature higher than the transformation range. Also called self-hardening steel.

ALLOY. A substance that has metallic properties and is composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.

ALPHA IRON. The form of iron that is stable below 910°C, (1,970°F) and characterized by a body-centered cubic crystal structure.

ANNEALING. A heat treatment designed to effect: softening of a cold worked structure by recrystallization, or grain growth, or both; softening of an age hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form; softening of certain age hardenable alloys by dissolving the second phase and cooling rapidly enough to obtain a supersaturated solution (this usage is generally applied to nickel-base and copper-base alloys the treatment should be called more precisely a solution heat treatment); relief of residual stress and change in properties induced during the forming process.

AUSTEMPERING. A trade name for a patented heat treating process that consists of quenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the transformation range in a medium with a  heat abstraction rate sufficiently high to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products, and  maintaining the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation.

AUSTENITE. A solid solution in which gamma iron is the solvent. Characterized by a face-centered cubic crystal structure.

AUTOMATIC PRESS STOP. A machine-generated signal for stopping the action of a press, usually after a complete cycle, by disengaging the clutch mechanism and engaging the brake mechanism.

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