Z94.10 Management

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UNCERTAINTY. An aspect of nonprogrammed decisions that is a condition in which the decision maker must choose a course of action without complete knowledge of the consequences that will follow implementation.

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE. A cultural dimension in Geert Hofstede's frame-work for analyzing societies that involves the extent to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with and try to avoid situations that they perceive as unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable.

UNDERCONTROL. The granting of autonomy to an employee to such a point that the organization loses its ability to direct the individual's efforts toward achieving organizational goals.

UNIONS. Employee groups formed for the purpose of negotiating with management about conditions relating to their work.

UNIT AND SMALL-BATCH PRODUCTION. A type of technologyin which products are custom-produced to meet customer specifications or meet customer specifications or they are made in small quantities primarily by craft specialists.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION. The vertical flow of communication from a lower level to one or more higher levels in the organization.

USER. An individual, other than an information system professional, who is engaged in the development and/or management of computer-based information systems.

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