Z94.8 Facility Planning & Design

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CAB. An equipment-mounted enclosure for operators from which motion of equipment may be controlled.

CAB CONTROLLED. Equipment controlled from an operator’s cab.

CABLE-SCREW CONVEYOR. A one-way or closed-circuit conveyor of which the propelling medium is a flexible torque-transmitting cable of which helical (screw) threads are an integral part. Loads or load carriers engage the thread and advance a distance equal to one pitch for each revolution of the cable screw.

CABLEWAY. A cable, or rope-supported system in which the material handling carriers are not detached from the operating mechanism and the travel is wholly within the span.

CABLEWAY, SLACK LINE. A cable or rope-supported system in which the supporting cable is adjusted in length to provide the lifting function of the unit.

CAGED STORAGE. The area within a facility or warehouse which has been set aside for pilferable items and is afforded a measure of security by means of a partition or other enclosure, usually wire screening.

CAMBER (GIRDER). The slight vertical curve given to girders to compensate partially for deflection due to load.

CANOPY. A roofed projection from the wall of a building, either exterior or interior, without enclosures below its edges, and providing protection from above.

CANTILEVER RACK. A rack consisting of load arms cantilevered from column(s); typically used for storing long products such as tubing, bars, pipes, etc.

CANTILEVER TRUCK. A self-loading counterbalanced or noncounterbalanced truck, equipped with cantilever load engaging means, such as forks.

CAPACITY. The maximum pounds, or the maximum load in pounds at a given load center, that a truck can safely transport and/or stack to a specified height.

CAPTIVE CONTAINER. A container whose use cycle remains within an  enterprise (private, corporate, or government).

CARGO. The product shipped in an aircraft, railroad car, ship or truck.

CARGO CONTAINER CAPACITY. The inside usable cubic volume of the container.

CARGO CONTAINER DISPLACEMENT. The outside cubic volume of the container. (Cargo Container Length x Cargo Container Width x Cargo Container Height.)

CARGO CONTAINER HEIGHT. The vertical overall outside dimension of the container.

CARGO CONTAINER LENGTH. The horizontal overall outside dimension usually parallel to the longitudinal axis of carrier equipment.

CARGO CONTAINER WIDTH. The horizontal overall outside dimension at right angles to the container length.

CARRIAGE. (1) A support structure for forks or attachments, generally roller mounted, traveling vertically within the mast of cantilever truck or stacker crane. (2) That part of an S/R machine by which a load is moved in the vertical direction.

CARRIER. (1) A person or firm engaged in the business of transporting goods. (2) An assembly usually with four or more wheels which will run on monorails or underhung crane girders, and which will support a load or a hoist and load. (3) The product carrying levels in horizontal and vertical carousels. (See COMMON CARRIER).

CARRIER HEAD. A two-wheeled assembly used with load bars to form a carrier or an end truck.

CAROUSEL CONVEYOR. A continuous platform or series of spaced platforms which move in a circular or elliptical horizontal path. Note: The term “carousel” has been applied to other forms of conveyors such as car type and pallet type.

CAROUSEL, HORIZONTAL. A modular storage and retrieval device providing carriers and shelves which rotates around a vertical axis, presenting items to be picked or stored at a workstation.

CAROUSEL, VERTICAL. A modular storage and retrieval device providing carriers and shelves which rotates around a horizontal axis, presenting items to be picked or stored at a workstation opening.

CAR TYPE CONVEYOR. A series of cars attached to and propelled by an endless chain or other linkage running on the horizontal or a slight incline.

CATWALK. An elevated service platform or walkway constructed to permit access to equipment, controls or other devices not frequently used.  The catwalk generally is designed to support only itself and the weight of people and repair parts required for access to the aforementioned items.

CEILING TIE. A member tying the rack to the overhead building structure.

CELLULAR LAYOUT. Layout of machines, workstations and support services in separate groups such that each group or cell is dedicated to the manufacture of a specific family of parts. Machines, workstations and support services in a cell are typically dissimilar in their processing capabilities and parts belonging to a part family are almost entirely processd in their corresponding cell.

CENTER CONTROL TRUCK. A powered industrial truck in which the driver’s position is located near the longitudinal center of the truck.

CHAIN CONVEYOR. Any conveyor in which one or more chains act as the conveying element. A British term for trolley conveyor. (See DRAG CHAIN CONVEYOR, ROLLING CHAIN CONVEYOR, SLIDING CHAIN CONVEYOR, TOW CONVEYOR.)



CHARACTER. (1) A single group of bars and spaces that represents an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other graphic fonts. (2) A graphic shape representing a letter, numeral or symbol. (3) A letter, digit, or other symbol that is used as part of the organization, control, or representation of data. A character is often in the form of a spatial arrangement of adjacent or connected strokes.

CHARACTER DENSITY. The dimension, in linear inches, required to encode one character.

CHARACTER READING. Reading of alpha or numeric characters, and/or symbols, by optical means.

CHARACTER SET. Those characters available for encoding purposes.

CHARGED AND DRY. Charged and dry is the condition of a storage battery when it is assembled with charged plates, dry separators, and with no electrolyte. Charged and dry batteries can be used as soon as they are filled but often are given an initial charge after filling and before use.

CHARGED AND WET. Charged and wet is the condition of a storage battery when it is filled with electrolyte and is fully charged.

CHECK DIGIT OR CHECK CHARACTER. A digit or character included within a symbol whose value is based mathematically on other characters included in the symbol. It is used for the purpose of performing a mathematical check to ensure the accuracy of the read.

CHUTE CONVEYOR. A conveyor typically used to transport material from a higher floor to a lower floor via enclosed or open slides.

CICMHE. College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education of the Material Handling Institute.

CITY TERMINAL SERVICE (AIR TRANSPORT). Shipments accepted or delivered by airlines at the terminals of cartage agents or other designated in-town terminals, at lower rates than those charged for the door-to-door airport pick-up and delivery service.

CLAMP. An attachment which uses a clamping action to engage the load from opposite sides. (See CLAMP ARMS.)

CLAMP ARMS. Auxiliary members that bolt or are welded to clamp arm supports. Various types are available for clamp(s) to suit them for specific loads, such as bag, bale, drum, carton, paper roll, tire, etc.

CLOSED CIRCUIT CONVEYOR. An arrangement of a conveyor or conveyors capable of moving material through all portions of a circuit, and returning the undistributed portion to the starting point.

CLASS-BASED STORAGE POLICY. A storage policy in which incoming items are classified depending upon the level of S/R activity they generate.

CLASSIFICATION AND CODING SYSTEM. A computer software system that allows part designers to classify a part based on its physical and operating characteristics (shape, material, tolerance requirement, etc.) and assign an alphanumeric code.

CLOSET. A small room designed to provide limited storage.

CODE. A set of unambiguous rules specifying the way in which data may be represented.

CODE READER OR SCANNER. A device that examines a spatial pattern, one part after another, and generates analog or digital signals corresponding to the pattern.

COLLAPSIBLE CONTAINER. A container, the major components of which can be disassembled and later reassembled for use.

COLLECTOR, SHOE. The portion of a collector that makes contact by sliding on the conductor bar.

COLLECTOR, WHEEL. The portion of a collector that makes contact by rolling on the conductor.

COLLECTORS. Electrical contacting devices providing a path for current flow from stationary conductors to moving equipment.

COLLISION AVOIDANCE RULES. Rules programmed into the controller of an AGV to ensure it will not collide with other vehicles or moving objects in the shop-floor.

COLUMN. (1) A single vertical member of the cantilever rack that may have a means for adjusting arms on preset centers. (2) Steel beam or post used to support the roof in a facility.

COLUMN SPACING. The distance between consecutive columns in a facility.

COMMODITY CODE. A system for identifying a given commodity by a number.

COMMODITY RATE. A charge applicable on a specific commodity between certain specified points.

COMMON CARRIER. A carrier engaged in the business of transporting goods and/or persons for compensation and without discrimination.

COMPARTMENT (BATTERY). The chamber on a truck in which a storage battery is housed and mounted.

CONDUCTORS. Bar or wire used to transmit an electrical current.

CONDUCTORS, ENCLOSED. Conductors enclosed in a nonconducting material to minimize accidental contact with the conductor.

CONNECTING CARRIER. A carrier maintaining a direct physical connection with one or more carriers.

CONNECTOR (BATTERY). An item for quick connection composed either of male and female halves or two halves that differ only in method of mounting. Generally the two halves are known as charging plug and charging receptacle.

CONNECTOR LOCK. A safety device used to lock the rail support connector to the post.

CONSOLIDATING POINT OR AREA. A point at which less than carload, or less than truckload, shipments are brought together to be reforwarded as a carload or truckload.

CONTAINER.  A receptacle such as a bag, barrel, drum, box, crate or package used in storage or shipment of a commodity to provide protection from physical damage or contamination of the commodity. (See DEMOUNTABLE CARGO CONTAINER)

CONTAINER CORNER FITTINGS. The fittings located at the corners of the container, which provide means for handling, supporting and/or securing the container.

CONTAINER LOAD. A shipment sufficient in size to “fill” a container, either by cubic measurement or weight, depending upon governing tariff to meet the provided minimums.

CONTAINER MARKING. Bar codes, numbers, nomenclature, or symbols stamped or painted on, or otherwise affixed to, items or containers for purposes of identification.

CONTINUOUS CODE. A bar code or symbol where the space between characters (“inter-character gap”) is part of the code.

CONTINUOUS PROCESS. An operation wherein raw materials enter into the process in an unbroken stream and proceed to a final form, in contrast to batch processing (q.v.).

CONTRACT CARRIER. A person or firm, not a common carrier, that transports goods and/or persons for compensation under private or special contract agreements.

CONTROL BARS. Conductor bars that carry the control current.

CONTROLLED VELOCITY ROLLER CONVEYOR. A roller conveyor having means to control the velocity of objects being conveyed. (See ROLLER CONVEYOR.)

CONTROLLERS. Electronic, mechanical, or electromechanical devices by means of which an operator or computer controls the speed, direction or other action of motor driven equipment or systems.

CONTROL, SINGLE SPEED. A drive control system providing one speed operation in either direction.

CONTROL, VARIABLE SPEED. A drive control system providing more than single-speed operation in either direction.

CONTROL, VOLTAGE. The voltage impressed on the control device(s).

CONVEYOR. A horizontal, inclined or vertical device for moving or transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a path predetermined by the design of the device and having points of loading and discharge fixed, or selective; included are skip hoists and vertical reciprocating and inclined reciprocating conveyors; typical exceptions are those devices known as industrial trucks, tractors and trailers, tiering machines (truck type), cranes, hoists, monorail cranes, power and hand shovels, power scoops, bucket drag lines, platform elevators designed to carry passengers or the elevator operator, and highway or rail vehicles.

CONVEYOR-ELEVATOR. A conveyor that follows a path, part of which is substantially horizontal or on a slope less than the angle of slide of the material and part of which is substantially vertical or on a slope steeper than the angle of slide.

CONVEYOR TYPE FEEDER. Any conveyor such as apron, belt, chain, flight, pan, oscillating, screw, or vibrating, adapted for feeder service.

CORNER MARKER. A marker used at aisle intersections to prevent workers and equipment from bumping into and/or damaging the stacks.

CORROSION. (1) The oxidation of metals. (2) Chemical or electrochemical deterioration by reaction. (3) “Rust” in ferrous metals.

CORROSION PREVENTION. The protection given metallic items by covering surfaces subject to corrosion to prevent contact with water, moisture, vapor, acids, or other contaminating substances or storage in dehumidified air. It includes careful cleaning of all or part of the items, the application of a barrier of oil, grease, or moisture-vaporproof paper to exclude air and moisture, and the covering of the barrier to provide for its protection.

CORROSION PREVENTIVE. Any agent such as oil, plastic, paint, wrap or other surface treatment of metals whose primary function is to prevent corrosion. This may exclude atmosphere by means of a continuous film, or may direct corrosion to another element (cathodic protection).

COUNTERBALANCED FRONT SIDELOADER TRUCK. A self-loading high lift counterbalanced truck (equipped with a fixed or tiltable elevating mechanism) capable of transporting and tiering a load in both the counterbalanced forward position and any location up to and including 90° from the longitudinal centerline of the truck, which has the capability of traversing the load laterally.

COUNTERBALANCED TRUCK. A truck equipped with load engaging means wherein all the load during normal transporting is external to the polygon formed by the wheel contacts thus requiring a counterbalance to avoid truck tipping.

COUPLER HEIGHT. The vertical distance from floor to the effective horizontal center line of coupler.

CRANE. A machine for lifting, and/or moving a load with the hoisting mechanism an integral part of the machine. Cranes may be traveling, portable, or fixed type. (See BRIDGE, FIXED, JIB, PORTABLE, TOWER, OR TRAVELING  CRANES.)

CRANE ATTACHMENT. A device that can be attached to a heavy-duty truck to make it a mobile crane.


CRANE BRIDGE (TOP-RUNNING). The girders, trucks, end ties, footwalk (if any), and drive mechanism which carries the trolley.

CRANE DRIVE, INDIVIDUAL. Separate drives mounted on individual end trucks.

CRATE. A rigid shipping container of framed construction joined together with nails, bolts or any equivalent method of fastening. The framework may or may not be enclosed with sheeting.

CRAWLER CRANE. A portable crane mounted on a base equipped with crawler treads.

CROSS AISLE. (1) An aisle at right angles to main aisles, used for the movement of goods, equipment, and personnel. (2) The space used to accommodate secondary movement of people, material, and/or equipment, and intersecting another aisle.

CROSS BAR CONVEYOR. A conveyor having endless chains supporting spaced cross members from which materials are hung or festooned while being processed.

CROSS-DOCKING. Products are received, immediately broken into smaller shipments, then shipped without the products having gone into storage.

CROSS STACKING. The placing of one layer of containers at right angles to those just below to increase the stability of the stack.

CROSS TIE. Cross layers of supplies as in cross stacking, except that only an occasional layer is crossed, and not every other one.

CUBE. Cube expresses volume and is the product of length, width and depth. A common measure of storage space utilization is termed “cube utilization.”

CUBE-PER-ORDER INDEX (COI). The ratio of the item's storage space requirement (volume) to the number of S/R transactions for that item.

CUBE PER ORDER INDEX STORAGE POLICY. A storage policy in which each item is allocated warehouse space based on its cube-per-order index. Items are located nearest the I/O or P/D point in a non-decreasing order of their COI.

CURVED BELT CONVEYOR. A unit load belt conveyor usually operating horizontally through 90° or 180° turns.

CUSHION TIRE. A solid tire having a high rounded profile in cross section.


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