Z94.4 - Cost Engineering & Project Management

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WAGE RATE. The hourly, daily or weekly cost of a person who works for wages, eg, mechanics, laborers, steamfitters.

WEIGHTS. Numerical modifiers used to infer importance of commodities in an aggregative index.

WORK. Any and all obligations, duties, responsibilities, labor, materials, equipment, temporary facilities, and incidentals, and the furnishing thereof necessary to complete the construction which are assigned to, or undertaken by the contractor, pursuant to the contract documents. Also, the entire completed construction or the various separately identifiable parts thereof required to be furnished under the contract documents. Work is the result of performing services, furnishing labor, and furnishing and incorporating materials and equipment into the construction, all as required by the contract documents.

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS). A product-oriented family tree division of hardware, software, facilities and other items which organizes, defines and displays all of the work to be performed in accomplishing the project objectives.  1) Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS) —the complete WBS for a contract developed and used by a contractor in accordance with the contract work statement. It extends the PSWBS to the lowest level appropriate to the definition of the contract work.  2) Project Summary Work Breakdown Structure (PSWBS) — a summary WBS tailored by project management to the specific project with the addition of the elements unique to the project.

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE ELEMENT. Any one of the individual items or entries in the WBS hierarchy, regardless of level.

WORK DIRECTIVE CHANGE. A written directive to the contractor, issued on or after the effective date of the agreement and signed by the owner and recommended by the engineer ordering an addition, deletion or revision in the work, or responding to differing or unforeseen physical conditions or emergencies under which the work is to be performed as provided in the general conditions. A work directive change may not change the contract price or the contract time, but is evidence that the parties expect that the change directed or documented by a work directive change will be incorporated in a subsequently issued change order following negotiations by the parties as to its effect, if any, on the contract price or contract time.

WORKHOUR. An analysis of planned versus actual staffing of the project used to determine work progress, productivity rates, staffing of the project, etc.

WORK-IN-PROCESS. Product in various stages of completion throughout the factory, including raw material that has been released for initial processing and completely processed material awaiting final inspection and acceptance as finished product or shipment to a customer. Many accounting systems also include semi-finished stock and components in this category. Syn: In-Process Inventory.

WORK ITEM. The precedence notation equivalent of an activity. (See ACTIVITY.)

WORK PACKAGE. A segment of effort required to complete a specific job such as a research or technological study or report, experiment or test, design specification, piece of hardware, element of software, process, construction drawing, site survey, construction phase element, procurement phase element, or service, which is within the responsibility of a single unit within the performing organization. The work package is usually a functional division of an element of the lowest level of the WBS.


WORK SITE. The area designated in the contract where the facility is to be constructed.

WORK UNIT. A unit of time used to estimate the duration of activities.

WORTH. The worth of an item or groups of items, as in a complete facility, is determined by the return on investment compared to the amount invested. The worth of an item is dependent upon the analysis of feasibility of the entire item or group or items under discussion (or examination.)

WRITTEN AMENDMENT. A written amendment of the contract documents, signed by the owner and the contractor on or after the effective date of the agreement and normally dealing with the non-engineering or non-technical rather than strictly work-related aspects of the contract documents.

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