# Z94.1 - Analytical Techniques & Operations Research Terminology

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QUADRATIC FUNCTION. A function which contains second-degree terms in the variables, e.g. a + bx + cx2. [19]

QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING. Maximization (minimization), subject to linear constraints of an objective function which is a concave (convex) quadratic function. [19]

QUALITY. The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

QUALITY ASSURANCE. All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.

QUALITY CONTROL. The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements of quality.

QUANTAL RESPONSE. The response of a subject to a stimulus is said to be quantal when the only observable—or the only recorded—consequence of applying the stimulus is the presence or absence of a certain reaction, e.g., death. A quantal response may be expressed as a two-valued variate taking values 0 and 1. [22]

QUANTITATIVE DATA. A term usually used to describe data in which the variables concerned are quantities, as distinct from data derived from qualitative attributes.

QUEUE DISCIPLINE. The rule for selecting a unit in the waiting line for service.

QUEUING, MULTISTAGE. Involves two or more steps in a process, each of which involves waiting in a line. In this case, processing is done in sequence rather than in parallel.

QUEUING THEORY. The theory involving the use of mathematical models, theorems and algorithms in the analysis of systems in which some service is to be performed under conditions of randomly varying demand, and where waiting lines or queues may form due to lack of control over either the demand for service or the amount of service required, or both. Utilization of the theory extends to process, operation and work studies. (See source code 33.)

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