Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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WAGE INCENTIVE PLAN. A method of compensation based on pay by performance in which improved performance earns extra pay for the employee. Standards may be time values or dollars per piece. Plans usually provide a minimum pay level for work below normal or standard. Plans are usually for individual employees; small group incentives will include groups working together or on assembly lines. These plans are distinguished from broad based plans such as gain sharing, profit sharing, executive bonus plans, and other pay for performance plans.

WAITING TIME. The time when an operator or a machine waits for service, parts, inspection, instructions and for other causes.

WINK. One division on the microchronometer equal to 1/2,000 (.0005) minute.


WORK CELL. A group of machines arranged to process a family of parts in a way that minimizes material handling and storage between operations; can handle a lot size of one piece, and integrated in such a way that the cell produces a finished product.

WORK CYCLE. (1) A pattern or sequence of tasks, operations, and/or processes. (2) A pattern of manual motions, elements, operations, and/or activities that is repeated without significant variation each time a unit of work is completed. (See MOTION CYCLE.)

WORK DESIGN. The design of work systems. System components include people, machines, materials, sequence, and the appropriate working facilities. The process technology and the human characteristics are considered. Individual areas of study may include analysis and simplification of manual motion components: design of jigs, fixtures, and tooling; human-machine analysis and design; or the analysis of gang or crew work. Syns: ergonomics, job design, methods engineering, methods study, motion study, operation analysis, work simplification, motion economy.

WORK FACTOR (WF). A proprietary predetermined time standards system.

WORKING AREA. That portion of the workplace within which an operator moves about in the normal job performance.

WORKING CONDITIONS. Generally refers to surrounding conditions or factors such as noise, temperature, air pollution, presence of chemical odors, health effecting factors, and so on.

WORK MEASUREMENT. A generic term used to refer to the setting of a time standard by a recognized industrial engineering technique, such as time study, standard data, work sampling, or predetermined motion time systems. Syn. ergonometrics.

WORKPLACE LAYOUT. The manner in which all of the items necessary to perform a work task, as specified by the standard method, are arranged.

WORK SAMPLING. An application of random sampling techniques to the study of work activities so that the proportions of time devoted to different elements of work can be estimated with a given degree of statistical validity.

WORK SIMPLIFICATION. A management philosophy of planned improvement using any or all of the tools and techniques of industrial engineering in an atmosphere of creative participation which enables employees to achieve individual goals through the achievement of organizational goals. (See WORK DESIGN.)


WORK STUDY. The techniques of methods study and work measurement employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in calling out a specific activity.

WORK TASK. A specific quantity of work, set of duties or responsibilities, or job function assigned to one or more persons.

WORK UNIT. An amount of work, or the results of an amount of work, that it is convenient to treat as an integer (an each) when examining work from a quantitative point of view.

WORK UNIT ANALYSIS. A hierarchical delineation of the objectives and types of outputs of an organization, and the subparts of these outputs, in work-unit terms.


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