Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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TASK. (See JOB.)

TEARDOWN. All work items required between the end of one operation or job and the start of setup for the next operation or job, both jobs requiring the same machinery or facilities.

TEMPORARY RATE. (1) A production or time standard based on a temporary standard. (2) Wage incentive pay rate based on a temporary standard such as for while awaiting study or other causes for delay.

TEMPORARY STANDARD. An approximate standard time intended to apply for a limited time to account for some unusual job condition or while awaiting restudy of the task to which it applies.

THERBLIG. A short manual work segment used to describe the sensory-motor activities or other basic elements of an operation. Developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, therbligs form a basic language for methods description and, in modified form, for elemental motion time data. The original seventeen are: search, select, grasp, transport empty, transport loaded, hold, release load, position, preposition, inspect, assemble, disassemble, use, unavoidable delay, avoidable delay, plan, rest for overcoming fatigue. Syn: Gilbreth basic element, basic division of accomplishment, fundamental motion, basic motion, basic element. (Therblig spelled backwards is Gilbreth.)

THERBLIG CHART. An operation chart with the suboperations broken down into individual motions, and all motions designated with their appropriate therblig symbols. Syns: right- and left-hand chart, simo chart.

THRUPUT. The quantity of acceptable product processed through a manufacturing line or machine in a specified time (such as an eight-hour shift.)


TIGHT STANDARD. A standard time less than that required by a qualified workman with normal skill and effort following a prescribed method and including allowances for delays, personal needs, and rest. Syn: tight rate.


TIME FORMULA. A formula for determining the normal time or standard time of a task as a function or one or more variables in the task. Included are coefficients for the variables so that insertion of the variable values allows direct time computation.


TIME STUDY. A work measurement technique consisting of careful time measurement of the task with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort or pace and to allow adequate time for such items as foreign elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to overcome fatigue, and personal needs. Learning or progress effects may also be considered. If the task is of sufficient length, it is normally broken down into short, relatively homogenous work elements, each of which is treated separately as well as in combination with the rest.

TIME STUDY OBSERVATION SHEET. A form for the systematic, detailed recording of element time values, and irregular occurrences observed during a time study. Generally, space is also provided for entering other pertinent information and for computation of standard times from the data. Syns: time study computation sheet, time study form.

TMU. (TIME MEASUREMENT UNIT.) Unit of measure for a number of work measurement systems. 100,000 TMU's equal one hour.

TOLERANCE. (1) A permissible variation in a characteristic  of a product or process, usually shown on a drawing or specification. (2) In work measurement, the permissible variation of a time value for an operation or other work unit.

TOLERANCE LIMITS. (1) The upper and lower extreme values permitted by the tolerance. (2) In work measurement, the limits between which a specified operation time value or other work unit will be expected to vary.

TRAINING ALLOWANCE. (1) An allowance to compensate for an untrained worker's learning effect. (2) An adjustment to an incentive pay piece rate for the same reason. (3) An adjustment to earnings of an individual or group for the same reason. Usually involves adjusting actual earnings under an incentive plan to some guaranteed percentage, or to prior average earnings. (See ALLOWANCE.) Syn: learner's allowance.

TRAVEL CHART. A table giving distances travelled between points in a manufacturing facility. Values may be adjusted to reflect weight, value, or some other factor depending on circumstances.

TRAVEL TIME. Time required to move material, equipment, personnel, or information from one work or storage area to another.

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