Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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SCANLON PLAN. A gain sharing plan that measures economic gains as a ratio of dollar payroll to sales dollars. The generic plan is in the public domain.


SELECT(ED) TIME. The time which is chosen by simple observation or by statistical means as being representative of the actual time values (prior to applying a performance rating factor) obtained from the observation of an element or operation. (See AVERAGE CYCLE TIME, AVERAGE ELEMENT TIME.)

SEQUENCING. Specifying the order of performance of tasks so that available production facilities are utilized in an optimal manner.

SETUP. Preparation of a workplace or a machine for a specific work method, activity, or process. Includes installation of all necessary hand tools, jigs, fixtures, and other tools or equipment in the location and condition for proper performance of the work.

SHORT INTERVAL SCHEDULING (SIS). A technique of dispatching batches of work, usually at one hour intervals, accompanied by time standards. Workers are closely monitored to determine reasons for not completing work in an assigned time interval. Standards are called "reasonable expectancies."

SHOULD-TAKE, DID-TAKE TIME STANDARDS. Normal performance usually involves setting standards through performance rating or predetermined time standards, creating time values that an average qualified worker "should take" to perform a task. "Did-take" standards are established based on historical data without the use of performance rating or benchmark references. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.)

SIMO CHART (SIMULTANEOUS MOTION CHART). A chart for displaying two-handed work with motion symbols plotted vertically against time. The therblig or motion abbreviation and a brief description are shown for each activity. In addition, individual time values and body member detail may be shown. (See RIGHT- AND LEFT-HAND CHART.)

SIMPLIFIED PRACTICE. (1) The practices or operations resulting from a work simplification or methods study. (2) A description of the work method of a job, specified in somewhat less detail than in a standard practice.

SIMULTANEOUS MOTIONS. Two or more  elemental motions performed during the same time interval by different body members.




STANDARD. (1) An established norm for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, quality, or time. (2) Standard time.

STANDARD ALLOWANCE. An allowance calculated, arbitrarily set, or negotiated to provide in advance for specified conditions. (See ALLOWANCE.)

STANDARD DATA. A structured collection of normal time values for work elements codified in tabular or graphic form. The data are used as a basis for determining time standards on work similar to that from which the data were collected without making additional time studies. (See SYNTHETIC DATA.)

STANDARD ELEMENT TIME. A standard time for an individual work element. (See STANDARD TIME.)

STANDARD HOUR. The quantity of output required of an operator to meet exactly the production quota for one hour. The production quota is normally based on a standard time. Also used to refer to an hour of less than 60 minutes when allowances are expressed as nonproductive minutes. (See ALLOWED HOURS.)

STANDARD OUTPUT. The reciprocal of standard time expressed in appropriate units (e.g., dozens of units per hour, tons per day, or hundreds of barrels per week).

STANDARD PERFORMANCE. The performance of a person or group achieving standard output.

STANDARD PRACTICE. A description of a work method wherein all of the significant variables of the method have been specified in detail. Usually follows a specified format. (See METHOD.) Syns: standard method, written standard practice.

STANDARD SYSTEM. The common name for a codified set of time-motion data, often covering both general and proprietary data sets, considered the usual practice for a given plant or location and thus regarded as authoritative. (See PREDETERMINED TIME SYSTEM.)

STANDARD TIME. A unit time value for the accomplishment of a work task as determined by the proper application of appropriate work measurement techniques by qualified personnel. Generally established by applying appropriate allowances to normal time. Standard time and normal time are identical when nonproductive time is granted in lieu of allowances. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.) Syns: direct labor standard, engineered performance standard, engineered standard, output standard, production standard, time standard.


STANDARD TIME, STATISTICAL. A standard time developed from statistical analysis of past performance time data. Syn: historical time.

STANDARDS AUDIT. A work measurement study or sequence of studies intended to test the correctness of existing standard times and methods. By means of periodic sampling of work times, an attempt is made to detect significant changes.

STANDBY. A category of time in which the worker is not actively engaged in producing a unit of output but is available to take appropriate action when needed. Standby is recognized only when it is essential to the task and when no other work can be done during the standby period. (See DELAY.)

STANDBY TIME. The time expended in standby status, e.g., the time spent by workers in awaiting equipment, labor crews, or work assignment; or due to failure of utilities, inclement weather, and other similar occurrences.

START-UP CURVE. A learning curve applied to a job or process to adjust for work times longer than standard, or average, as a result of the introduction of a new job or new worker(s). (See LEARNING CURVE.)

STATIC WORK. Work performed by the hands or arms where no significant motion occurs, e.g., holding.


STOPWATCH. A portable timing device that can be started or stopped at will by the user to register continuous and/or elapsed time. (See DECIMAL-HOUR STOPWATCH, DECIMAL-MINUTE STOPWATCH.)

SUBTRACTED TIME. The difference between successive stopwatch readings when using a continuous timing technique. Usually represents the time for one element.


SYNTHETIC DATA. (1) Work measurement time values not obtained from direct measurement of the work to which they are applied. Generally represent values for task elements that are sufficiently basic as to occur in several jobs, obtained from measuring task elements in similar jobs or from predetermined time systems. (2) Any production data not measured directly from but applicable to a given situation. (See STANDARD DATA, PREDETERMINED TIME SYSTEM.)

SYNTHETIC TIME STANDARD. A standard time determined from synthetic data.

SYSTEM. A set of interrelated parts that operate as a whole in pursuit of common goals; is characterized by: a) a set of components of subsystems linked by information channels, b) engaged in coordinated, goal-directed activity, c) information flow as the basis for control, d) a set of subgoals associated with the individual subsystems or components, e) an external environment which influences the system. A system is said to be an open system if it reacts to its environment and is a closed system if it does not. It is an adaptive system if it reacts to environmental changes in a way that is favorable toward achieving the system goals.

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