Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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MACHINE ASSIGNMENT. (1) The equipment assigned to an operator in the performance of a job. (2) Equipment designed to perform jobs as in production scheduling.

MACHINE ATTENTION TIME. Time during which a machine operator must observe the machine's functioning and be available for immediate servicing, while not actually operating or servicing the machine. Syn: service time.

MACHINE CAPABILITY. Qualitative and quantitative measures of acceptable output from a given piece of power equipment.

MACHINE-CONTROLLED TIME. The time portion of an operation cycle required by a machine to complete the machine portion of the work cycle. The operator does not control this portion of the cycle time, whether or not attending the machine. Syns: independent machine, machine-controlled time allowance, allowance for machine-controlled time.


MACHINE HOUR. A unit for measuring the availability or utilization of machines. It is equivalent to one machine working for 60 minutes, two machines working for 30 minutes, or an equivalent combination of machines and working time.

MACHINE IDLE TIME. (1) Time during which a machine is idle during a work cycle awaiting the completion of manual work. (2) Interference time.

MACHINE INTERFERENCE. The occurrence of conflicting demands for service by two or more units of equipment.

MACHINE LOAD. (1) The planned usage of a unit of equipment during a specified interval of time. (2) The percentage of maximum load at which the machine is actually used.

MACHINE PACING. Machine or mechanical control over the rate at which the work progresses, as opposed to pacing by the worker(s). (See MACHINE-CONTROLLED TIME.)



MACROELEMENT. An element of a work cycle long enough to permit observation and timing by a stopwatch. (See MICROELEMENT.)

MAINTENANCE. Preventive and/or correctional activities to insure that facilities and equipment are functionally capable of expected operation. As a result of these activities, equipment should be in good operating condition (clean, free from hazards, etc.) within specified limitations such as those imposed by age and prior use.

MAN-HOUR. A unit of measure representing one person working for one hour. The combination of "n" people working for "h" hours produces nh man-hours. Frequent qualifications to the definition include: (1) designation of work effort as normal effort; (2) designation of time spent as actual hours. (See MAN-MINUTE.)


MAN-MINUTE. A unit for measuring work. It is equivalent to one person working at normal pace for one minute, two people working at normal pace for thirty seconds, or an equivalent combination of people working at normal pace for a period of time. (See MAN-HOUR.)

MAN-PROCESS CHART. A graphic, symbolic representation of the work steps or activities performed or to be performed by a person. Typically, the information included on the chart is the distance the person moves and type of work done (by symbol with description). Equipment used and work times may also be included.

MANUAL ELEMENT. A distinct, describable, and measurable subdivision of a work cycle or operation performed by hand or with the use of tools, and one that is not controlled by process or machine.

MANUAL TIME. The time required to perform a manual element. (See MANUAL ELEMENT.) Syn: hand time.

MANUALLY-CONTROLLED WORK. A work cycle consisting completely of manual elements or where the manual time controls the pace at which the work progresses. Syn: effort-controlled cycle.

MANUFACTURING CELL. A grouping of equipment to form a self-contained autonomous unit to produce parts or products of similar geometry and specifications; equipment may range from traditional machine tools through computer numerical control machines and robots.

MARSTOCHRON. An electric motor driven paper-tape puller used to record motion or work element times. An observer visually detects the endpoints of successive motions or elements and presses one or both of two keys that record these endpoints as successive marks along a time base on the tape. Syns: chronograph, marstograph.

MAXIMUM WORKING AREA. That portion of the working area that is easily accessible to the hands of an operator, with arms fully extended, who is in the normal working position with trunk erect and stationary.


MEASURED DAY WORK. (1) Work performed for a set hourly nonincentive wage where performance is compared to established production standards (most frequent use). (2) An incentive plan wherein the hourly wage is adjusted up or down and is guaranteed for a fixed future period (usually a quarter) according to the average performance in the prior period (infrequently used).

MEASURED WORK. A term used to describe work, operations, cycles, etc., on which a standard has been set using time study or another standard setting technique.

MECHANIZATION. The act or process of using power-driven machinery to perform specific operations or functions usually with the intent of improving productivity and/or quality of the work performed.

MEDIAN TIME. That time which is greater than or equal to half of the observed times, excluding abnormal times. It is also less than or equal to the other half of the observed times.

MEMOMOTION STUDY. A work measurement and methods analysis technique using a motion picture camera that records events at less than normal camera speed, e.g., 50, 60, or 100 frames per minute; incorporate video equipment similarly. Same results are obtained by changing the tape transport speed or the frequency of analytical recording. Used for the analysis of long events, group activities, or processes that do not move rapidly. (Syns: Camera Study, Time-Lapse Photography).

MENTAL WORK. Work done principally by the mind: logical decision-making, such as sorting, classifying, or inspecting (monitoring): recalling (memory): calculation, such as performing mathematical or verbal operations and inductive policy or hypothesis formulation. The complexity may vary from elementary mental reactions to highly involved judgments based on a large number of variable factors.

MERIT RATING. A formalized system of appraising employee performance according to an established group of factors. Usually the appraisal is annual or semi-annual and is by immediate supervision. Factors frequently considered include quality of work, quantity of work, reliability, adaptability, initiative, and attitude. Syns: performance appraisal, employee rating, personnel rating.

METHOD. (1) The procedure or sequence of motions by workers and/or machines used to accomplish a given operation or work task. (2) The sequence of operations and/or processes used to produce a given product or accomplish a given job. (3) A specific combination of layout and working conditions; materials, equipment, and tools; and motion patterns involved in accomplishing a given operation or task.

METHODS ANALYSIS. That part of methods engineering normally involving an examination and analysis of an operation or a work cycle broken down into its constituent parts for the purpose of improvement, elimination of unnecessary steps, and/or establishing and recording in detail a proposed method of performance.

METHODS ENGINEERING. That aspect of industrial engineering concerned with the analysis and design of work methods and systems, including technological selection of operations or processes, specification of equipment type and location, design of manual and worker-machine tasks. May include the design of controls to insure proper levels of output, inventory, quality, and cost. (See WORK DESIGN, MOTION ANALYSIS, MOTION ECONOMY, METHODS ANALYSIS.)

METHODS STUDY. A systematic examination of existing methods with the purpose of developing new or improved methods, tooling, or procedures.

METHODS TIME MEASUREMENT (MTM). A proprietary predetermined time standards system.

MICROCHRONOMETER. A large-faced electric clock with rapidly moving hands used in micromotion studies (within the camera's view) to indicate the passage of time. The clock usually measures to the nearest wink, or 0.0005 minutes. Syn: wink counter.

MICROELEMENT. An element of work too short in time to allow it to be observed with the unaided eye. (See ELEMENTAL MOTION.)

MICROMOTION STUDY. A work measurement or methods analysis technique using a motion picture camera or video equipment to record events at normal (960 frames per minute) or faster than normal camera speed. Used for the analysis of short, highly detailed movements that are too rapid for satisfactory visual observation. The camera may be driven so as to act as a timing device for the measurement of motions or elements, or there may be a timing device such as a microchronometer in the camera's field of view. (Syn: camera study).

MINIMUM TIME. The shortest actual time recorded during a time study for each element of work.

MODAL TIME. The actual time value for an element or operation that occurs more often than any other time value.

MOST®. (MAYNARD OPERATION SEQUENCE TECHNIQUE.) A proprietary predetermined time standards system.

MOTION ANALYSIS. The study of the basic divisions of work involved in the performance of a given operation for the purpose of eliminating all useless motions and arranging the remaining motions in the best sequence for performing the operation. (See PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY.)

MOTION CYCLE. The complete sequence of motions and activities required to do one unit of work or to perform an operation once. (See CYCLE.)



MOTIVATED PRODUCTIVITY LEVEL (MPL). The work pace of a motivated worker possessing sufficient skill to do the job, physically fit to do the job, after adjustment to it, and working at an incentive pace that can be maintained day after day without harmful effect on a safe job. MPL can be used as a base for measuring work performance by establishing normal performance at a specified work level from MPL. For example, if 100% is designated as MPL, and MPL could be 130% with respect to APL, then in this case APL would be 77% and MPL would be 100%. Or, APL can be 100% and MPL could be 130% (See HIGH TASK, INCENTIVE PACE, NORMAL PERFORMANCE, ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTIVITY LEVEL). 


MULTIPLE ACTIVITY PROCESS CHART. A chart of the coordinated synchronous or simultaneous activities of a work system of one or more machines and/or one or more workers. Each machine and/or worker is shown in a separate, parallel column indicating their activities as related to the rest of the work system. Examples: multiworker process chart, Gantt chart, multiworker-machine process chart, worker-machine process chart, worker-multimachine process chart. Syns: multiple activity operation chart, multiple activity chart.


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