Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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FAIR DAY'S WORK. The amount of work which is expected daily from an employee. May be established solely by management or through mutual agreement. May or may not be established through the use of various measurement techniques. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.) Syn: expected attainment.

FATIGUE. A psychological and physiological process that reduces the performance capacity and motivation of a worker. The magnitude of the effect varies with the stress induced on the worker resulting from the nature of the work, the work environment, and the physical taxing of the worker.

FATIGUE ALLOWANCE. Time included in the production standard to allow for rest to overcome the effects of fatigue. May be applied either as a percentage of the leveled, normal, or adjusted time or as a stated number of nonproductive minutes per hour. (See ALLOWANCE, STANDARD TIME.)

FILM ANALYSIS. A systematic, detailed analysis of work from a motion picture film or video tape. Usually related to micromotion or memomotion study, or from a video tape.

FILM ANALYSIS CHART. For recording a film analysis. Generally records each successive elemental motion, element, or operation, the beginning and ending clock time (if a clock is included in the picture) or frame number, and its descriptive symbol. (See SIMO CHART, THERBLIG CHART.) Syn: film analysis record.


FILMS, RATING. Motion picture films and video tapes containing a consistent or random sequence of work scenes being done at varying performance levels, used to train work measurement analysts in identifying different performance levels. May also be used to attempt to standardize the concept of normal performance such as in card dealing, walking, or typical shop operations.

FIRST PIECE TIME. The allowed time to produce the first piece in an order of several pieces. Intended to compensate for delays resulting from unfamiliarity with the work method, or for extra first piece work such as setup or for inspection and adjustment in setup.

FIXTURE. A device used to position and hold materials which are being worked upon or assembled.

FLOAT. (1) The amount of material in a system or process, at a given point in time, that is not being directly employed or worked upon. (2) The total cushion or slack in a network planning system. Syn: bank.

FLOW ANALYSIS. Detailed examination of the progressive travel, either of personnel or material, from place to place and/or from operation to operation.

FLOWCHART. Tabular material, standardized symbols, and explanations depicting the predetermined route of either personnel or material, from place to place and/or from operation to operation in the manufacturing or processing sequence of events.

FLOW DIAGRAM. A representation of the location of activities or operations and the flow of materials between activities on a pictorial layout of a process. Usually used with a flow process chart.

FLOW LINE. (1) The direction taken either by personnel or material as they progress through the manufacturing or processing sequence of events. (2) The path along which personnel or material travel in progressing through the plant. Syn: line of flow.

FLOW PATH. The route taken and/or space occupied by the personnel, material, subassembly, or assembly as these progress through the manufacturing process.

FLOW PROCESS CHARGE.  A graphic, symbolic representation of the work performed or to be performed on a product as it passes through some or all of the stages of a process.  Typically, the information included in th echrt is quantity, distance moved, type of work done (by symbol with explanation), and equipment used.  Work times may also be included.  Flow process chart symbols generally used are:

ASME* Standard Symbol

Operation:  A subdivision of a process that changes or modifies a part, material or product, and is done essentially at one workplace location.

A specialized application for paperwork uses two standard sysmbols:

Creation of a record or set of papers

Additona of information to a record or set of papers

Transportation (move):  Change in location of a person, part, material, or product form one workplace to another.

Inspection:  Comparison of observed quality or quantity of product with a quality or quantity standard.

Storage:  Keeping a product, material, or part protected against unauthorized removal.

D delay:  An event which occurs when an object or person awaits for the next planned action.

Combined activity:  Adjustment during testing, e.g., would combine the separate operation and inspection symbols.

*See ASME Standard 101
 Syns:  flow chart, production process chart, product analysis chart.

FOREIGN ELEMENT. An element with a random, usually unpredictable, frequency of occurrence, not part of a normal method, usually accounted for by eliminating the element or by predicting the occurrence frequency and allowing elemental time prorated into the operation time.
FORM PROCESS CHART. A graphic, symbolic representation of the process flow of paperwork forms. Similar to a flow process chart except that the item of interest is one or more forms. A form process chart may show organizations, operations, movements, temporary and controlled storages, inspection or verification, disposal of all forms charted, as well as the source and type of information transmitted between forms. Flow process chart symbols may be adapted to reflect the form processing activity. Syns: information process analysis chart, functional forms analysis, forms analysis chart.

FRAME COUNTER. A mechanical or electronic counter which can be used to determine the number of frames that have passed a predetermined point in a motion picture. The frame counter may be attached to any device for showing or viewing motion pictures or video recordings.

FREQUENCY. (1) The number of times a specified value occurs within a sample of several measurements of the same dimension or characteristics on several similar items. (2) In work measurement, the number of times an element occurs during an operation cycle.

FUMBLE. An unintentional human activity referred to as a sensory-motor error that may or may not be avoidable depending upon the working environment or the skill of the operator.

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