Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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CHANGEOVER TIME. The time required to modify or replace an existing facility or workplace, usually including both teardown time for the existing condition and setup of the new condition. (See SETUP, TEARDOWN.)

CHECK STUDY. A partial or complete review of a job or operation to evaluate the validity of a standard time.

CHRONOCYCLEGRAPH TECHNIQUE. A modification of the cyclegraph technique to permit the computation of motion velocities and accelerations from the spacing of light signals on the film whose shapes indicate the direction of movement, produced by pulsing the lights on and off at regular time intervals. (See CYCLEGRAPH TECHNIQUE.)

CHRONOLOGICAL STUDY. A detailed study and recording of a sequence of events in the order of occurrences. (See PRODUCTION STUDY.)

CODING. (1) Translation of a data processing machine program from descriptive, symbolic, or diagram form into machine language (code) or into an explicit symbolic language that may be translated directly into machine language by means of an assembly program or compiler. (2) Referring numbers to a convenient origin and/or scale for ease of computation. (3) Assigning a numerical and/or alphabetical symbol or group of symbols to a class or variable to achieve consistent identification, location, or interpretation. A desirable property of such symbology is the mnemonic, or memory-jogging, characteristic to promote efficient association of the code meaning.

COMBINED MOTIONS. Two or more elemental motions performed during the same interval by the same body member. Example: regrasping an object while moving it to its destination. Simultaneous motions are performed at the same time by different body members.

COMBINED WORK. (1) The production of a person working with one or more machines in which the output is controlled by the operator. In calculating a standard, the machine portion of the work cycle is not taken into account. (2) The total accomplishment of a group of workers.

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING. Is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing and support to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements.

CONSISTENCY. (1) The absence of noticeable or significant variation in behavioral or numerical data as, for example, in the work pace or method used by a worker. (2) Uniformity or agreement, within stated limits, between repetitive occurrences of an event or a numerical value.

CONSTANT ELEMENT. A job or task element which occurs without significant variation in work content and/or performance time. May be used to describe elements within a given operation or elements common to different operations; an element which occurs in different jobs in which other elements are varied, but the one in question occurs in the same time.



CONTINUOUS TIMING. A stopwatch technique in which the watch runs continuously throughout the study and readings are made of the cumulative time at the end of each element. Individual element times are then obtained by subtraction. Syns: continuous method, continuous reading.

CONTROL SYSTEM. A system that has as its primary function the collection and analysis of feedback from a given set of functions for the purpose of controlling the functions. Control may be implemented by monitoring and/or systematically modifying parameters or policies used in those functions, or by preparing control reports that initiate useful action with respect to significant deviations and exceptions.

COVERAGE, ACTUAL. The number of jobs, the number of personnel, or the total hours which are covered by standards during the reporting period. Commonly expressed as a percentage of the total number of jobs, personnel, or hours. Syn: standard coverage.

COVERAGE, POTENTIAL. An estimate of the number of jobs, the number of personnel, or the total hours which can be covered by time standards during the reporting period. Commonly expressed as a percentage of the total number of jobs, personnel, or hours.

COVERAGE, STANDARD. The percent of operations that are performed against time standards. (See COVERAGE,  ACTUAL.)

CYCLE. The complete sequence of activities, operations, and machine or process times required to complete one segment, unit, or batch of work. (See MOTION CYCLE, WORK CYCLE.)

CYCLEGRAM. Similar to cyclegraph except that the film being exposed is moved slowly to one side so that retraced motions are shown side by side on the film rather than superimposed on earlier motions.

CYCLEGRAPH. The pattern developed by the cyclegraph technique. (See CYCLEGRAPH TECHNIQUE.)

CYCLEGRAPH TECHNIQUE. The use of small lights on the hands or other body members to indicate their motion patterns. The lights are recorded by a still camera in a darkened room with an exposure time equal to at least one motion cycle.

CYCLE TIMING. Timing a complete work cycle as a single time value rather than timing the individual elements of the cycle. (See DIFFERENTIAL TIMING.)

CYCLIC ELEMENT. An element of an operation or process that occurs in every cycle of the operation or process.


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