Z94.13 - Occupational Health & Safety

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HABITUAL VIOLATOR. An individual whose record, during a given time period, shows reports of repeated violations of laws or regulations. In traffic safety, any driver whose record during a consecutive 12-month period shows reports of more than three convictions for traffic violations or more than five times the average number of convictions for all drivers in the state, whichever is greater.

HARD METAL DISEASE. A condition of fibrosis of the lungs thought to be due to inhalation of dust of tungsten carbide and cobalt used as a binder.

HAZARD. That dangerous condition, potential or inherent, which can bring about an interruption or interference with the expected orderly progress of an activity.

HAZARD ANALYSIS. An analysis performed to identify hazardous conditions for the purpose of their elimination or control.

HAZARD CLASSIFICATION. A designation of relative accident potential based on probability of accident occurrence.

HAZARD CONTROL. That function in an organization directed toward the recognition, evaluation, and reduction or elimination of the destructive effects of hazards emanating from human acts of commission and omission and from the physical and environmental aspects of the workplace.

HAZARD LEVEL. A qualitative measure of hazards stated in relative terms. (DOD)     Category I. Negligible-Will not result in personal injury or system damage.     Category II. Marginal-Can be counteracted or controlled so that no injury to personnel or major system damage will be sustained.   Category III. Critical-Will cause personal injury or major system damage or both.   Category IV.   Catastrophic-Will cause death to personnel.

HAZARD PAY. Extra payments to workers in dangerous occupations or while engaged in work where the chances of injury are greater than normal.

HAZARD RECOGNITION. The perception of a hazardous condition.

HAZARDOUS CONDITION. The physical condition or circumstance which is causally related to accident occurrence. The hazardous condition is related directly to both the accident type and the agency of the accident.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Any substance or compound that has the capability of producing adverse health and safety effects on humans.

HEALTH AND INSURANCE PLAN. A program of providing financial protection to the worker and family against death, illness, accidents, and other risks, in which the costs may be borne in whole or in part by the employer. One or more of the following major benefits may be provided for the worker and, frequently, dependents: life insurance, accidental death and dismemberment benefits, accident, and sickness.

HEALTH PHYSICIST. A health professional trained in radiation physics and concerned with problems of radiation damage and protection.

HEALTH RISK APPRAISAL. A generic term applied to methods for describing an individual's chances of becoming ill or dying from selected causes. It is used to indicate risks to health and safety that are influenced by individual's lifestyle behaviors.

HEALTHY WORKER EFFECT. A phenomenon observed in studies of occupational diseases. Workers usually exhibit lower overall mortality rates than the general population, due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are not employed.

HEARING CONSERVATION. Preventing or minimizing noise-induced hearing loss through the use of hearing protection devices and the control of noise through engineering methods.

HEARING LEVEL (HEARING LOSS). The deviation in decibels of an individual's threshold from the zero reference of the audiometer. Formerly called  hearing loss.-

HEAT CRAMPS (MINERS' OR STOKERS' CRAMPS). Painful spasms of the voluntary muscles due to salt depletion. These occur in healthy, heat acclimatized individuals and are due to excessive sweating without salt replacement rather than directly to high temperature exposure. They are relieved with fluid and salt replacement.

HEAT EXHAUSTION (HEAT PROSTRATION, HEAT COLLAPSE). A state of peripheral vascular collapse in an unacclimatized individual attributable to exposure to a high temperature environment. Treatment consists of removal to a cool environment, rest, and salt and water replacement. It is prevented by controlling heat exposures, adequate acclimatization, and maintaining adequate salt and water intake.

HEAT PYREXIA (HEAT STROKE). A very serious and often fatal condition resulting from breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanisms during exposure to high temperature environments. It is characterized by extremely high deep-body temperature and an absence of sweating. Treatment consists of rapid cooling in an ice bath.

HEMATOMA. A collection of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue, resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel. Frequently occurs with a contusing wound.

HERTZ. The frequency measured in cycles per second (cps).  1 Hz = 1 cps.

HIGH FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS. A hearing deficit starting at 2000 Hz and higher.

HIGH PRESSURE NERVOUS SYNDROME. A disorder occurring at extremely deep depths (in excess of 600 feet or about 20 atmospheres pressure) characterized by tremor, nausea, and decreased psychomotor ability. It appears to be due to both direct hydrostatic pressure and to compression rate. It is counteracted to some extent by addition of a narcotic agent to the breathing mixture. It usually resolves completely with decrease in pressure.

HOISTWAY. A vertical (or in the case of deep ore mines, sloped) passageway designed to enclose and provide support for an elevator, platform, or other lifting device.

HOISTWAY-DOOR INTERLOCK. A hoistway-door interlock is a device, on an elevator shaftway, the purpose of which is, first, to prevent the operation of the elevator machine in a direction to move the car away from a landing unless the hoistway door at that landing at which the car is stopping or is at rest is locked in the closed position, and second, to prevent the opening of the hoistway door from the landing side except by special key, unless the car is at rest within the landing zone, or is coasting through the landing zone with its operating device in the stop position.

HOLD HARMLESS AGREEMENT. A contract under which the legal liability of one party for damages is assumed by another party to the contract. The principal in a large construction project will frequently demand hold harmless agreements from all subcontractors in respect to claims made against the principal arising out of the subcontractors' negligence. The principal often stipulates the purchase of a liability policy by the subcontractor to support the hold harmless agreement.

HOSPITALIZATION BENEFITS. A plan that provides workers, and in many cases their dependents, with hospital room and board or cash allowances toward the cost of such care for a specified number of days, plus the full cost of specified services. Usually part of a more inclusive health and insurance program.

HOST FACTORS. Personal characteristics of the individual. These may be grouped, as Thorndike has done in an analysis of the literature, into a) sensory abilities, b) psycho-motor abilities, c) cognitive and intellectual abilities, d) personal and emotional adjustments (including physiological adjustment), and e) biographical facts.

HOUSEKEEPING. Cleanliness, neatness, and orderliness of a work area.

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY. A treatment modality using pure oxygen at high pressure in a recompression chamber. It is useful in the treatment of diving casualties but is also valuable in treatment of medical diseases such as carbon monoxide intoxication and gas gangrene. Hyperbaric oxygen cannot be used at pressures exceeding 3 atmospheres.

HYPERCAPNIA. An increased carbon dioxide level in the blood. It results from carbon dioxide accumulation due to inadequate respiratory exchange or through breathing elevated concentrations. Although not acutely toxic below relatively high concentrations (5%), it is implicated as a synergist in most other high pressure gas-related casualties.

HYPERSENSITIZATION. An antigen-antibody mediated response characterized by an immediate vascular exudative reaction in previously sensitized tissue following exposure to a specific existing agent.

HYPERSUSCEPTIBILITY. A markedly greater quantitative response to a physiologically active agent qualitatively identical to its usual response.

HYPOTHERMIA. Lowered core temperature. Drop in core temperature to 35ºC. It produces shivering and discomfort sufficient to adversely affect performance; at about 25ºC hypothermia is ordinarily fatal. Cold water immersion produces hypothermia very rapidly whereas exposure in cold air environments is tolerable for much longer periods. Treatment for hypothermia is rapid rewarming in a warm bath.

HYPOTHESIS. A conjecture subject to verification or proof.

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