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PALLET. (1) Device that serves as a standardized conveyance for the part in an automated work environment. (2) Material handling device used for loading and unloading components.

PAN. (1) Orientation of a view, as with video camera, in azimuth. (2) Motion in the azimuth direction.

PART. A material item which is used as a component and is not an assembly.

PART CLASSIFICATION. A coding scheme, typically involving four or more digits, that specifies a discrete product as belonging to a part family. (See GROUP TECHNOLOGY.)

PART FAMILY. A set of discrete products that can be produced by the same sequence of machining operations. This term is primarily associated with group technology.

PART HANDLING SYSTEM (PHS). Network including carts, pathways, conveyors, chains, and storage areas for parts, fixtures, and pallets.

PART ORIENTATION. The angular displacement of a product being manufactured relative to a coordinate system.

PART PROGRAM. The set of instructions and descriptions necessary to guide a machining operation.

PASSIVE ACCOMODATION. Compliant behavior of a robots end point solely in response to forces exerted on it.

PATH. In robotics, the space curve traced by the end effector.

PATTERN RECOGNITION. Description or classification of pictures or other data structures into a set of classes or categories.

PAYLOAD. The maximum weight or mass of a material that can be handled satisfactorily by a machine or process in normal and continuous operation.

PEDESTAL ROBOT. A robot mounted on a single fixed support.

PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT. Units which may communicate with a computer or programmable controller, but are not part of it, e.g., teletype, cassette recorder, CRT terminal, tape reader, etc.

PICK AND PLACE. Simple transfer motion of robots.

PICK AND PLACE ROBOT. A simple robot, often with only two or three degrees of freedom, that transfers items from place to place by means of point-to-point moves. Little or no trajectory control is available. Often referred to as a bang-bang robot.

PITCH. (1) An angular displacement up or down as viewed along the principal axes of a body having a top side, especially along its line of motion. (2) The axial displacement of successive threads of a screw.

PLANETARY DRIVE. A gear reduction arrangement consisting of a sum spur gear, two or more planetary spur gears, and an internally toothed ring gear.

PLAYBACK ACCURACY. (1) Difference between a position command recorded in an automatic control system and that actually produced at a later time when the recorded position is used to execute control. (2) Difference between actual position response of an automatic control system during a programming or teaching run and that corresponding response in a subsequent run.

POINT-TO-POINT CONTROL. A control scheme whereby the inputs or commands specify only a limited number of points along a desired path of motion. The control system determines the intervening path segments.

POKA-YOKE. An approach to minimizing mistakes or defects by modifying a system to reduce the possibility of their occurring; originated by Dr. Shigeo Shingo.

POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM. A coordinate system in two variables, an angle of rotation and distance from origin, usually as applied to points in a plane. Two coordinates specify a point on a circle.

POLLING. A technique by which each of the devices sharing a communications line or network is periodically interrogated to determine whether it requires servicing.

POSITION CONTROL. Control system in which the input (desired option) is the position of some body.

POSITION ERROR. In a servomechanism that operates a manipulator joint, the difference between the actual position of that joint and the commanded position.

POSTPROCESSOR. Program or computer function necessary in some numerical control systems to customize generic programs to run on a specific machine.

PRECISION. The standard deviation or root-mean-squared deviation of values around their mean.

PRIORITY SCHEDULING RULE. A technique for assigning an objective priority sequence number that can then be utilized for scheduling of production jobs.

PROCESS. A systematic sequence of operations to produce a specified result.

PROCESS CONTROL. Systems for automation of continuous operations. This is contrasted with numerical control, which provides automation of discrete operations.

PROCESS DETAILING. Planning for the details of machining. Process detailing includes cutting parameter selection, cutter path generation, etc.

PROCESS INSTRUCTION. The part of a process plan which specifies the operations on a part and the sequences of these operations, with alternative operations and routings wherever feasible.

PROCESSOR. (1) In hardware, a data process. (2) In software, a computer program that includes the compiling, assembling, translating, and related functions for a specific programming language, e.g., Cobol processor, Fortran processor.

PROCESS PLAN. A detailed plan for the production of a piece part or assembly. It includes a sequence of steps to be executed according to the instructions in each step and consistent with the controls indicated in the instructions.

PROCESS PLANNING. (1) The act of preparing a process plan for the fabrication or assembly of parts. Planning may be performed manually or with computer assistance. (2) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Planning of all the required operations for making a single component.

PROCESS SEQUENCING. Determining a suitable order of processes for manufacturing a part.

PRODUCT GROUP. A group of products having common classification criteria.

PRODUCTION. The converting of a raw material into a finished product.

PRODUCTION CONTROL. The function of directing or regulating the orderly movement of goods through the entire production cycle from the requisitioning of raw materials to the delivery of the finished product.

PRODUCTION CYCLE TIME. The elapsed time to produce a product.

PRODUCTION LEVELS. The quantity of production usually expressed in units, or some other broad measure.

PRODUCTION MONITORING. The checking of the status and progress of production activities.

PRODUCTION PLAN. Information required to produce a desired system output, including part numbers, quantities, tools, machines, and schedules.

PRODUCTION RATES. The quantity of production, usually expressed in units/hour.

PRODUCT MIX. (1) The distribution of the various items in a production plan. (2) The combination of individual product types and the volume produced that make up the total production volume.

PROGRAM SCAN. The time required for a programmable controller processor to execute all instructions in the program.

PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER (PC). A solid state control system which has a user programmable memory for storage of instructions to implement specific functions such as I/O control logic, timing, counting, arithmetic, and data manipulation.

PRONATION. Orientation or motion toward a position with the back, or protected side, facing up or exposed.

PROPORTIONAL CONTROL. Control scheme whereby the signal that drives the actuator equals the difference between the input (desired output) and measured actual output.

PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL (PID). Control scheme whereby the signal that drives the actuator equals the weighted sum of the difference, time integral of the difference, and time derivative of the difference between the input and the measured actual output.

PROTOCOL. The rules for controlling data communications between devices in computer systems or computer networks.

PROXIMITY SENSOR. A device that senses the presence of an object and/or measures how far away it is. Proximity sensors work on the principles of triangulation of reflected light, lapsed time for reflected sound, and others.

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