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IDLE TIME. (1) That part of available time during which the hardware is not teeing used. (2) The time during which a machine or operator is nonproductive because of lack of work.

INDIRECT COST. Cost factors that must be allocated to a group of parts or products because there is no close association between the cost and the product, such as building utilities or cost in the purchasing and personnel departments.

INDIRECT MATERIALS. Raw materials which become part of the final product but in such smal1 quantities that their cost is not applied directly to the product. Instead, their costs become a part of manufacturing overhead.

INDUCTION MOTOR. An alternating-current motor in which torque is produced by the reaction between a varying or rotating magnetic field that is generated in stationary field magnets and the current that is induced in the coils or circuits of the rotor.

IN-PROCESS INVENTORY. Products in various stages of completion throughout the factory.

INPUT/OUTPUT (I/O). (1) Pertaining to either input or output, or both. (2) A general term for the equipment used to communicate with a computer. (3) The data involved in such communication. (4) The media carrying the data for input/output.

INPUT/OUTPUT MODULE. The printed circuit board or electronic assembly that is the termination for field wiring of I/O devices.

INTEGRAL CONTROL. Control scheme whereby the signal that drives the actuator equals the time integral of the difference between the input (desired output) and the measured actual output.

INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (ICAM). A research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Air Force to advance the state of manufacturing technology.

INTEGRATED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (IDSS). A term that refers to a computer-software-based support system that integrates a number of decision-making tools in a single package.

INTEGRATED INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM (IISS). A term that encompasses the acquisition and use of information to make effective decisions in a CAM environment.

INTELLIGENT ROBOT. A robot that can make sophisticated decisions and behavioral choices through its sensing and recognizing capabilities.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEM. Use of automation and artificial intelligence to reduce safety risks and implement cognitive capabilities, such as speech understanding, logic deduction, picture understanding, reasoning with expert knowledge, problem solving, and decision making in machines.

INTERACTIVE. Processing of data on a two-way basis, and with human intervention providing redirection or processing in a predetermined manner.

INTERFACE. A shared boundary. An interface may be a mechanical or electrical connection between two devices, a portion of computer storage accessed by two or more programs, or a device for communication to or from a human operator.

INTERLOCK. (1) A device to prevent a machine from initiating further operations until some condition or set of conditions is furfilled. (2) To prevent a machine or device from initiating further operations until the operation in process is completed.

INTERMITTENT PRODUCTION. A production system in which the productive units are organized according to function. The jobs pass through the functional department departments in lots and each lot may have a different routing.

INTERNAL SENSOR. A sensor for measuring displacements, forces, or other variables internal to a robot.

INTERRUPT. A signal that temporarily suspends the normal sequence of operations of a computer or controller.

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