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EMPIRICAL DATA. Data originating in or based on observation or experience.

ENCODER. A type of transducer commonly used to convert angular or linear position to digital data

END EFFECTOR. An actuator, gripper, or mechanical device attached to the wrist of a manipulator by which objects can be grasped or otherwise operated on.

END ITEM. End product or the highest level of assembly shown by the bill of material

END-POINT CONTROL. Any control scheme in which only the motion of the manipulator end point may be commended and the computer can command the actuators at the various degrees of freedom to achieve the desired result.

END-POINT RIGIDITY. The resistance of the hand, tool, or end point of a manipulator arm to motion under applied force

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP). A complex computer system for controlling the scheduling and material flow in a manufacturing system.

ERGONOMICS. The study of human aspects of processes, especially behavioral, cognitive, and physiological.

EXPEDITING. (1) The function of searching out and correcting conditions accounting for discrepancies between planned and actual performance. (2) The "rushing" or changing of production orders which must be furfilled in less than normal lead time.

EXPLOSION. An extension of a bill of materials into the total of each of the components required to manufacture an assembly or subassembly quantity.

EXTENSION. Orientation or motion toward a position where the joint angle between two connected bodies is 180 degrees.

EXTERNAL SENSOR. A sensor for measuring displacements, forces, or other variables in the environment external to the robot.

EXPERT SYSTEM. Intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference rules and procedures to solve problems that require significant human expertise for their solution.

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