Z94.10 Management

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HACKERS. Individuals who are knowledgeable about computers and who gain unauthorized entry to, and sometimes tamper with, computer networks and files of organizations with which they have no affiliation.

HALO EFFECT. The tendency to use a general impression (based on a few characteristics) of an individual to judge other characteristics of that same individual.

HAND OF GOVERNMENT. A view of corporate social responsibility which argues that the interests of society are best served by having the regularity hands of the law and the political process, rather than the invisible hand, guide the results of corporations’ endeavors.

HAND OF MANAGEMENT. A view of corporate social responsibility which states that corporations and their managers are expected to act in ways that protect and improve the welfare of society as a whole, as well as advance corporate economic interests.

HARDWARE. Physical computer equipment, including the computer itself and related devices.

HARVEST. A defensive strategy that entails minimizing investments while attempting to maximize short-run profits and cash flow, with the long-run intention of exiting the market.

HAWTHORNE EFFECT. The possibility that individuals singled out for a study may improve their performance simply because of the added attention they receive from the researches, rather than because of any specific factors being tested.

HAWTHORNE STUDIES. A group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company during the late 1920s and early 1930s whose results ultimately led to the human relations view of management.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY. A content theory of motivation (developed by Abraham Maslow) which argues that individual needs form a five-level hierarchy.

HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION. Lateral or diagonal message exchange either within work-unit boundaries, involving peers who report to the same supervisor, or across work-unit boundaries, involving individuals who report to different supervisors.

HORIZONTAL COORDINATION. An aspect of organization structure involving the linking of activities across departments at similar levels.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM). The management of various activities designed to enhance the effectiveness of an organization’s work force in achieving organizational goals.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING. The process of determining future human resources needs relative to an organization’s strategic plan and devising the steps necessary to meet those needs.

HUMAN SKILLS. Key management skills associated with a manager’s ability to work well with others both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things done through others.

HUBRID STRUCTURE. A type of departmentalization that adopts parts of both functional and divisional structures at the same level of management.

HYGIENE FACTORS. A type of factor which figures in the two-factor theory of motivation that is largely associated with the work environment (such as working conditions and supervision) and that can influence the degree of worker dissatisfaction.

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