Z94.10 Management

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GAINSHARING. A compensation system in which employees throughout an organization are encouraged to become involved in solving problems and are then given bonuses tied to organizationwide performance improvements.

GAME THEORY. A quantitative technique for facilitating decision making in situations of conflict among two or more decision makers seeking to maximize their own welfare's.

GANTT CHART. A type of planning and control model developed by Henry L. Gantt that relies on a specialized bar chart showing the current progress on each major project activity relative to necessary completion dates.

GARBAGE-CAN MODEL. A nonrational model of managerial decision making stating that managers behave in virtually a random pattern in making nonprogrammed decisions.

GE BUSINESS SCREEN. A portfolio approach involving a nine-cell matrix (developed by General Electric with McKinsey & Company) that is based on long-term industry attractiveness and on business strength.

GENERAL MANAGERS. Managers who have responsibility for a whole organization or a substantial subunit that includes most of the common specialized areas within it.

GEOCENTRIC ORIENTATION. An approach to international management (also known as world orientation)  where-by executives believe that a global view is needed in both the headquarters of the parent company and its various subsidiaries and that the best individuals, regardless of home-or host-country origin, should be utilized to solve company problems anywhere in the world.

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. A form of divisional structure involving divisions designed to serve different geographic areas.

GLOBALIZATION. A strategy aimed at developing relatively standardized products with global appeal, as well as at rationalizing operations throughout the world.

GOAL. A major planning component that is a future target or end result that an organization wishes to achieve.

GOAL COMMITMENT. A critical goal setting element that involves one’s attachment to, or determination to reach, a goal.

GOAL INCONGRUENCE. A condition in which there are major incompatibilities between the goals of an organization member and those of the organization, the effects of which can be reduced by the establishment of standards.

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. The element of the task environment that includes agencies that provide service and monitor compliance with laws and regulations at local, state or regional, and national levels.

GRAND STRATEGY. A master strategy that provides the basic strategic direction at the corporate level.

GRAPEVINE. Another term for informal communication.

GRAPHIC RATING SCALES. Performance appraisal scales that list a number of rating factors, including general behaviors and characteristics, on which an employer is rated by the supervisor.

GROUP. Two or more interdependent individuals who interact with and influence each other in collective pursuit of a common goal.

GROUP COHESIVENESS. A major group process factor that concerns the degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in the group, are motivated to remain in the group, and are mutually influenced by one another.

GROUP MAINTENANCE ROLES. Roles that do not directly address a task itself but, instead, help foster group unity, positive interpersonal relations among group members, and development of the ability  of members to work effectively together.

GROUP TASK ROLES. Roles that help a group develop and accomplish its goals.

GROUP TECHNOLOGY. The classification of parts into families (groups of parts or products that have some similarities in the way they are manufactured) so that members of the same family can be manufactured on the same production line.

GROUPTHINK. A phenomenon of group decision making in which cohesive groups tend to seek agreement about an issue at the expense of realistically appraising the situation.

GROWTH-NEED STRENGTH. The degree an individual needs personal growth and development on the job.

GROWTH NEEDS. The needs in ERG theory that impel creativity and innovation, along with the desire to have a productive impact on our surroundings.

GROWTH STRATEGIES. Grand strategies that involve organizational expansion along some major dimension.

HACKERS. Individuals who are knowledgeable about computers and who gain unauthorized entry to, and sometimes tamper with, computer networks and files of organizations with which they have no affiliation.

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