Z94.10 Management

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FACILITIES. The land, buildings, equipment, and other major physical inputs that substantially determine productive capacity, require time to alter, and involve significant capital investment.

FEEDBACK. A term that generally denotes information about the results of actions; used in conjunction with systems theory to signify information about results and organizational status relative to the environment; as applied to the job characteristics model of job design, specifies core job characteristic associated with the degree to which the job provides for clear, timely information about performance results; also used to indicate an element in the communication process that refers to the basic response of the receiver to the interpreted message in the communication process.

FEEDBACK CONTROL. A control type based on timing that involves regulation exercised after a product or service has been completed in order to ensure that the final output meets organizational standards and goals.

FEEDFORWARD CONTROL. A control type based on timing that focuses on the regulation of inputs to ensure that they meet the standards necessary for the transformation process.

FIELDER'S CONTINGENCY MODEL. A situational leadership approach originally develop by Fred Fiedler and his associates.

FINANCIAL BUDGETS. Plans that outline how an organization is going to acquire its cash and how it intends to use the cash.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. A summary of a major aspect of an organization’s economic status which is used as a fiscal control technique.

FINISHED-GOODS INVENTORY. The stock of items that have been produced and are awaiting sale or transit to a customer.

FIRST-LINE MANAGERS. Managers at the lowest level of the hierarchy who are directly responsible for the work of operating (non-managerial) employees.

FIRST-LINE SUPERVISORS. The same as first-line managers.

FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL. A model developed by Michael E. Porter and used in the examination of an organization’s task environment that offers an approach to analyzing the nature and intensity of competition in a given industry in terms of five major forces. 

FIXED-INTERVAL SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT. A type of partial reinforcement schedule based on a pattern in which a reinforcer is administered on a fixed time schedule, assuming that the desired behavior has continued at an appropriate level.

FIXED POSITION LAYOUT. A type of facilities layout having a production configuration in which the product or client remains in one location and the tools, equipment, and expertise are brought to it, as necessary, to complete the productive process.

FIXED-RATIO SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT. A type of partial reinforcement schedule based on a pattern in which a reinforcer is provided after a fixed number of occurrences of the desired behavior.

FLAT STRUCTURE. A structure that has few hierarchical levels and wide spans of control.

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (FMS). A manufacturing system on which CIM systems rely that uses computers to control machines and the production process automatically so that different types of parts or product configurations can be handled on the same production line.

FLEXTIME. An alternative work schedule that specifies certain core hours when individuals are expected to be on the job and then allows flexibility in starting and quitting times as long as individuals work the

total number of required hours per day.

FOCUS STRATEGY. A generic, business-level strategy outlined by Michael E. Porter that entails specializing by establishing a position of overall cost leadership, differentiation, or both, but only within a particular portion or segment of an entire market.

FORCE-FIELD ANALYSIS. A method that involves analyzing the two types of forces that influence any proposed change; driving forces and restraining forces.

FORMAL COMMUNICATION. Vertical and horizontal communication that follows paths specified by the official hierarchical organization structure and related task requirements.

FORMAL GROUP. A group officially created by an organization for a specific purpose.

FORMALIZATION. A method of vertical coordination that addresses the degree to which written policies, rules, procedures, job descriptions, and other documents specify what actions are (or are not) to be taken under a given set of circumstances.

FORMING. A stage of group development in which group members attempt to assess the ground rules that will apply to a task and to group interaction.

FRAMING. A decision-making bias that involves the tendency to make different decisions depending on how a problem is presented.

FRANCHISE. A continuing arrangement between a franchiser and a franchise in which the franchiser’s knowledge, image, manufacturing or service expertise, and marketing techniques are made available to the franchises in return for the payment of various fees or royalties and conformity to standard operating procedures.

FRANCHISEE. An individual who purchases a franchise and, in the process, is given an opportunity to enter a new business hopefully with an enhanced chance of success.

FREE RIDERS. Individuals who engage in social loafing, thus benefiting from the work of the group without bearing their proportional share of the cost involved.

FRIENDSHIP GROUP. An informal group that evolves primarily to meet employee social needs.

FRUSTRATION REGRESSION PRINCIPLE. A principle incorporated into ERG theory which states the if we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy a higher-level need, we may cease to be concerned about that need.

FUNCTIONAL AUDIT. A technique for evaluating internal strengths and weaknesses that involves an exhaustive appraisal of an organization and/or its individual businesses conducted by assessing the important positive and negative attributes of each major functional area.

FUNCTIONAL GROUP. A formal group consisting of a manager and all the subordinates that report to that manager.

FUNCTIONAL-LEVEL STRATEGY. A type of strategy that focuses on action plans for managing a particular area within a business in a way that supports the business-level strategy.

FUNCTIONAL MANAGERS. Managers who have responsibility for a specific, specialized area of the organization and supervise mainly individuals with expertise and training in that specialized area.

FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE. A type of departmentalization in which positions are grouped according to their main functional (or specialized) area.

FUTURISTS. Individuals useful in social forecasting who track significant social and other trends in the environment and attempt to predict their impact on the organization.

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