Z94.9 Human Factors (Ergonomics) Engineering

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OPEN LOOP. A control system to which there is no self-correcting action, operating without feedback, or with only partial feedback.

OPERATIONS RESEARCH. A mathematical modeling procedure aimed at discovering how, under the necessary conditions, requirements, and constraints, a system can best accomplish what it is designed or expected to do. Beginning with a clear statement of objectives, it involves identifying the relevant variables, expressing them in quantitative terms, measuring their fluctuations in given situations, and discovering how they interact. The system may be a machine, a social organization, or a combination of human and machine.

OPERATOR. An individual performing the functions of system control, monitoring, diagnosis, or repair.

OPERATOR INPUTS. In a human-machine system, information received (sensed) by the operator from instructions or displays or directly from the environment.

OPERATOR OUTPUTS. In a human-machine system, the action taken by the operator; the result of a decision based on the input, e.g., manipulation of controls and verbal communication.

OPERATOR OVERLOAD. Condition in which an operator is required to perform more functions than he/she is able to handle effectively within given time limitations, such as identifying signals, processing information, making decisions, etc.

OPTIMUM-LOCATION PRINCIPLE (EQUIPMENT DESIGN). The principle of arrangement such that each display and control should be placed in its optimum location in terms of some criterion of use (convenience, accuracy, speed, force to be applied, etc.).

OUTPUT DEVICE. Any device such as a display or printer, used to communicate the output of a computer to a user.

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION. Rate of oxygen use of organisms, tissues, or cells.


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