Z94.8 Facility Planning & Design

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


PACKAGING. Application or use of appropriate wrappings, cushioning, interior containers and complete identification marking, up to but not including the exterior shipping container.

PACKING. Application or the use of exterior shipping containers and assembling of items or packages therein, together with necessary blocking and bracing or cushioning, weatherproofing exterior, strapping, and marking of shipping containers.


PADDLE CONVEYOR SCREW. A conveyor screw in which paddles are pitched and positioned to form the material propelling means.


PADDLE WASHER. A conveyor consisting of one or two parallel inclined paddle conveyor screws in a conveyor trough having a receiving tank and an overflow weir at the lower end and a discharge opening at the upper end.

PALLET. A horizontal platform device used as a base for assembling, storing and handling materials and/or products in a unit load, usually consisting of 3 stages, with upper and lower dockboards.

PALLET, ALL-WAY ENTRY. A pallet whose configuration permits retrieving or discharging from any direction in the same horizontal plane.

PALLET, CAPTIVE. A pallet whose use cycle remains within a single enterprise (private, corporate, or government).

PALLET DISPENSER. A device for feeding empty pallets as required by a pallet loader or other machine or operation.

PALLET, DOUBLE DECK. A pallet having top and bottom decks.



PALLET, DOUBLE WING. A pallet whose top and bottom decks protrude beyond the outer edges of the deck spacers.

PALLET, EURO. Standardized pallet for the European Economic Community

PALLET, EXPENDABLE. A pallet intended to be discarded after one cycle of use.

PALLET, FLUSH. A pallet whose decks do not protrude beyond the deck spacers.


PALLET, FULL FOUR-WAY ENTRY. Full four-way pallets permit four-way insertion and withdrawal by forks of industrial trucks or by load wheeled forks of low-lift pallet truck.

PALLET HEIGHT. The total vertical dimension between the outer surfaces of the top and bottom decks.

PALLETIZER. A device to manually or automatically palletize cases coming from a production line via conveyors or other material handling devices.

PALLET JACK. A manual or battery powered device for limited lifting, maneuvering and transporting a pallet through short distances.

PALLET LENGTH. The first dimension stated in designating a pallet size. Based on common practice among pallet manufacturers and users, the first dimension is defined as follows:  one-way, two-way, and partial four-way entry pallets—by the length of the stringer.  four-way entry and all-way entry pallets having two or more deck members at the top deck—by the length of the stringer.  four-way and all-way entry pallets having a single deck member and a solid top deck.  single deck or double deck reversible—longest dimension of the pallet.  double deck nonreversible—the horizontal dimension at right angles to the length of bottom deck member.

PALLETLESS LOADER. An automatic machine consisting of synchronized conveyors and mechanisms to receive objects and arrange them automatically into a unit in accordance with a predetermined pattern.

PALLET LOAD DETIERER. A device for separating tiered pallet loads.

PALLET LOADER. An automatic or semiautomatic machine, consisting of synchronized conveyors and mechanisms to receive objects from a conveyor(s) and place them onto pallets according to a prearranged pattern.

PALLET LOAD TIERER. A device for stacking full pallet loads for storage.

PALLET, NONCAPTIVE. A pallet whose use cycle extends through one or more enterprises (private, corporate, or government) and may include a common carrier service.

PALLET, NONREVERSIBLE. A pallet having only one load-carrying surface.

PALLET, PARTIAL FOUR-WAY ENTRY. Partial four-way pallets permit four-way insertion and withdrawal by forklift trucks and restrict the load wheeled forks of low-lift pallet trucks to two-way entry.

PALLET, REUSABLE. A pallet intended for multiple cycles of use.

PALLET, REVERSIBLE. A pallet having top and bottom decks capable of carrying a load.

PALLET, SINGLE DECK. A pallet having only one deck.


PALLET, SINGLE WING. A pallet whose top deck only protrudes beyond the outer edges of the deck spacers.

PALLET SIZE. The horizontal dimensional length and width of the top deck of a pallet.


PALLET, STACKING. A pallet having a superstructure of vertical members (fixed, removable or collapsible), to support a superimposed load.

PALLET STORAGE RACK. A structure composed of two or more upright frames, beams, and connectors, for the purpose of supporting palletized materials in storage. Among the common methods of assembly are welded, bolted, or clipped.

PALLET STORAGE SHELF. At least two parallel beams in the same horizontal plane with connectors in place between upright frames for supporting pallets in storage.

PALLET, TAKE-IT-OR-LEAVE-IT. A pallet configuration that permits two choices of handling: (1) retrieving the pallet and unit load together, or (2) retrieving the unit load and leaving the pallet.

PALLET-TO-POST CLEARANCE. The dimension between the outside edge of the pallet to the inside edge of the post on either side of the pallet.

PALLET TRUCK. A self-loading, low lift truck equipped with wheeled forks of dimensions to go between the top and bottom boards of a double faced pallet and having wheels capable of lowering into spaces between the bottom boards so as to raise the pallet off the floor for transporting.

PALLET TRUCK OPENINGS. Openings in the bottom deck of a pallet to allow the load wheels of a low-lift pallet truck to bear on the floor.

PALLET, TWO-WAY ENTRY. A pallet whose configuration permits insertion and withdrawal of a lifting device from opposite directions along the same horizontal axis.

PALLET TYPE CONVEYOR. A series of flat or shaped wheelless carriers propelled by and attached to one or more endless chains or other linkage.

PALLET UNLOADER. An automatic machine consisting of synchronized conveyors and mechanisms to disassemble a pallet load and discharge the objects singly.

PALLET WIDTH. The horizontal dimension at right angles to the pallet length.

PALLET, WING. A pallet whose deck(s) boards protrude beyond the outer edges of the deck spacers.

PAN CONVEYOR. A conveyor comprised of one or more endless chains or other linkage to which overlapping or interlocking pans are attached to form a series of shallow, open-topped containers. Some are called apron conveyors.


PARCEL POST AIR FREIGHT. Consolidation of a number of parcel post packages (with destination postage affixed by the shipper) for shipment as air freight to the postmaster at another city for subsequent delivery within local postal zones or beyond.

PARKING BRAKE. A device to prevent the movement of a stationary vehicle.

PASSENGER CONVEYOR. A conveyor for transporting people who enter and leave the conveyor by walking or stepping and who either stand, sit or walk on the conveyor while being transported.

PAULIN. Sheet of canvas or other materials usually treated to make it resistant to moisture and chemicals, used as a protective covering (tarpaulin).

PENTHOUSE. An enclosed floor above the main roof of the building, generally substantially smaller than the area of the main floor of the building, and generally used to house either building or process equipment or in some cases, small habitable rooms, for specialized functions.

PERCENT (%) GRADE. The measure of the rate of ascent of an inclined plane numerically equal to the vertical rise divided by the horizontal length, multiplied by 100.

PERSONAL INJURY. Any bodily harm sustained by a person as the result of an accident.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. Any device utilized by the individual to prevent personal injury.

PERSONNEL AISLE. An aisle used only as pedestrian routes for access to doors or to special interior areas.

PERSON-TO-ITEM AS/RS. An AS/RS in which the storage racks are stationary and a person or machine goes to the storage location of items and picks them.

PICK LIST. A list that contains items from one or more orders to be picked.

PICKSTATION. The primary established location where an order picker stands or is assigned. For pickers who move, this may also be referred to as their "pick zone." A location for miniload and multiple modular AS/RS devices to deliver their products.

PICK-UP AND DELIVERY SERVICE (AIR TRANSPORT). An optional service for the surface transport of shipments from shipper’s door to originating air terminal and from the air terminal of destination to receiver’s door. Pick-up service is provided upon shipper’s request. Delivery service is provided automatically by the air carrier at an additional charge unless the shipper requests otherwise. PU&D is normally performed within a 25-mile radius of the airport. The latter is commonly referred to as the terminal area. (For service beyond the terminal area see TRUCK/AIR/TRUCK.)

PICK-UP AND DELIVERY STATIONS (P&D STATIONS). A location at which a load entering or leaving storage is supported in a manner suitable for handling by material handling equipment (also called transfer station, I/O station, feed/discharge station, etc.)


PIGGY-BACK. The transportation of truck trailers and containers on railroad cars.

PILOT PLANT. A facility devoted to the production of initial lots, or to the continuous production of small quantities of a product for the purpose of experimenting with its design, composition, production methods, and/or equipment used.

PINS. Fasteners such as rivets, belts, lags or other material used in assembling rack frames.

PIN TYPE SLAT CONVEYOR. Two or more endless chains to which crossbars are attached at spaced intervals, each having affixed to it a series of pointed rods extending in a vertical plane on which work is carried. Used principally in spraying or washing operations where the least amount of area of the product is contacted.

PIT. A depression below the adjacent floor or grade level, generally open above.

PIVOTED BUCKET CONVEYOR. A conveyor using pivoted buckets attached between two endless chains which operate in suitable guides or casing in horizontal, vertical, or inclined, or a combination of these paths over drive, corner, and take-up terminals. The buckets remain in the carrying position until they are tipped or inverted to discharge.


PLANNING DEPARTMENT. Collection of workstations to be grouped together during the facilities planning process.

PLANOGRAPH. A storage plan usually in two dimensions, on paper, which indicates the storage location of merchandise within a warehousing facility. Its primary function is to achieve the most effective utilization of space within the warehouse complex.

PLANT LAYOUT. A block layout of a factory, showing the relative location of departments, but not the machine locations or the material handling aisles.

PLANT LOCATION ANALYSIS. The compilation and evaluation of data necessary to render a decision concerning site selection.

PLATFORM. An area that is raised in relation to one or more adjacent areas.

PLATFORM TRUCK, POWERED. A dolly that is powered electrically or by gasoline.


PLUG (PORTABLE METAL STACKING RACK). A formed, cast, or forged metal piece (male form) affixed to the bottom of each leg designed to fit the nesting target on the post.

PNEUMATIC CHUTE OR SPOUT. A chute or spout in which air is introduced through the bottom to facilitate movement of bulk material down a slight decline.

PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR. An arrangement of tubes or ducts through which bulk material or objects are conveyed in a pressure and/or vacuum system.


POCKET CONVEYOR. A continuous series of pockets formed of a flexible material festooned between cross-rods carried by two endless chains or other linkage which operate in horizontal, vertical, or inclined paths.

PORTABLE CONVEYOR. Any type of transportable conveyor, usually having supports which provide mobility.

PORTABLE CRANES. Cranes having a revolving superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom mounted on a fully mobile carriage not confined to a fixed path. (See CRAWLER, LOCOMOTIVE, or TRUCK CRANE.)

PORTABLE DRAG CONVEYOR. A portable conveyor upon which endless drag chains are used as the conveying medium. Sometimes applied to a portable flight conveyor. (See DRAG CHAIN CONVEYOR.)

PORTABLE METAL STACKING RACKS. A structure constructed of welded tubing or structural shapes or a combination of both. The rack bed is rectangular with or without short legs on each corner which allow truck forks to penetrate under the bed. Rack legs can be fixed or removable. Some have one or two removable side frames rather than single legs. Decking, when required, can be of wood or metal. When legs or frames are in place, one rack rests on top of another by means of interlocking male and female socket arrangements or tiering guides. The racks can be customized to hold anything from small stampings (by adding wire mesh sides and bottoms) to diesel engines.

PORT OF ENTRY. A harbor or airport, designated by the government, at which goods or persons are admitted into the country.

PORT-OF-ORIGIN CARGO CLEARANCE. Customs formalities can be handled at certain originating cities in the USA rather than delaying such procedures until the export cargo reaches a gateway city.

POSITIVE DISCHARGE BUCKET ELEVATOR. A spaced bucket type of elevator in which the buckets are maintained over the discharge chute for a sufficient time to permit free gravity discharge of bulk materials. (See BUCKET ELEVATOR.)

POST. A single upright member, a part of an upright frame that may have provision for vertical adjustment of rails and beams.

POWER-AND-FREE CONVEYOR. A conveying system wherein the load is carried on a trolley or trolleys which are conveyor propelled through part of the system and may be gravity or manually propelled through another part. This arrangement provides a means of switching the free trolleys into and out of adjacent lines. The spur or subsidiary lines may or may not be powered.

POWER BARS. Conductor bars which carry motor operating current.

POWER CONVEYOR. Any conveyor which requires power to move its load.

POWER CURVE. A power driven conveyor for moving unit loads around a horizontal curve.


POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A mobile, power-driven truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier material.

PREPRINTED SYMBOL. A symbol which is printed in advance of application either on a label or on the article to be identified.

PRESERVATION. Application or use of adequate protective measures to prevent deterioration resulting from exposure to atmospheric conditions during shipment and storage.

PRESERVATIVES. Material used to protect an item against deterioration.

PROCESS LAYOUT. A layout in which machines, workstations and support services with similar processing capabilities are grouped together.

PRODUCT LAYOUT. A layout in which machines, workstations and support services to produce a product or family of products are grouped together.

PROPERTY DAMAGE. The total cost to restore the property to the condition that existed prior to the accident.

PUSH-BACK RACK. A rack in which items are loaded on a rail-guided carrier from the front of the rack and the previously stored loads are pushed back one position to the rear to make room for the new load. When a load is removed, the remaining loads advance forward due to a gentle slope in the racks.

PUSH BUTTON STATION (CRANE). A means by which an operator at a fixed or moving location may actuate push buttons to control powered equipment.

PUSH DIVERTER. A computer-controlled arm-like mechanism that can push items into or away from one conveyor line to another or a temporary hold area.

PUSHER BAR CONVEYOR. Two endless chains cross-connected at intervals by bars or rotatable pushers, which propel the load along the bed or trough of the conveyor.

PUSHER CHAIN CONVEYOR. One or more endless chains with attachments which propel or retard the movement of packages, objects, trucks, dollies, or cars along stationary wood, metal, or roller beds, troughs, rails, or tracks.

PUSH-PULL. A lift truck attachment designed to load, transport and unload unit loads stacked on slip sheets


< Previous | Next >