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ABRASIVE MACHINING. The basic process in which chips are removed by very small cutting edges that are integral parts of abrasive particles. Grinding, honing, belt sanding, lapping fall under this category.
ABRASIVES. Hard material that can cut or abrade other substances; they may be natural such as diamond, quartz, sand, garnet, or man made such as silicon carbide (carborundum) or aluminum oxides (alundum).
AISI STEEL DESIGNATION. A system of classifying steel and steel alloys, expanded from the original SAE system. (See SAE STEELS.)
ALLOWANCE. The least intentional difference or the maximum interference between two mating parts.
ALUMINUM OXIDE, AL2O3. Fine-grains of this oxide are bonded together and formed into cutting inserts (also known as ceramic or oxides).
AUTOMATIC BAR. Chucking and screw machines, different versions of turning machines for high production of parts from relatively small bar stock. (See SCREW MACHINES.)
AXIAL RAKE ANGLE. Applies to the angular (not helical or spiral) cutting faces: a) The angle of a plane containing the cutting face, or tangent to the cutting face at a given point, and the tool axis. b) The angle between the tool face, on angular teeth, perpendicular to a tangent between the cutting edge and the cutter axis, measured in an axial direction.
AXIAL RELIEF ANGLE. The angle between the relieved surface, or flank of the tooth, and a plane perpendicular to a line between the axis of the cutter and the cutting edge, measured in an axial direction.
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