Do you want more detail on the 2013 Ergo Cup Teams? Read about the ergonomics problems they encountered; their solutions and measurable outcomes.
JGI Employee-Focused Ergonomic Office and Laboratory Workstations Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CAThe Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) uses a team approach while remodeling laboratory and office spaces. JGI's employees, ergonomist, procurement, and facilities staff collectively identify, order, and install adjustable, comfortable, and safe furniture. Employee-designed furniture was used when remodeling laboratories to accommodate specific ergonomic needs and optimize productivity. Mock-up workstations and different furniture options were tested and rated by employees before purchasing. Electric height-adjustable office and lab furniture as well as height-adjustable lab benches were selected. These ergonomic solutions provide versatility for multi-user desks and lab benches, improve productivity, and reduce facilities costs and risks of ergonomic injuries.Ergonomic Risk Reduction Management System ModelEES, Juarez, Chihuahua, MexicoStrategic and practical approach to ergonomic risk factor reduction by applying a management system model with the flexibility to fit any organization's structure and culture. The methodology develops tactical and technical plans by providing effective implementation solutions to engineering department, ergonomics standards, design guidelines, and documents for program evaluation and review, which supports the medical department for cases management purposes.
Design for ErgonomicsGE Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UTThe Design for Ergonomics initiative expanded our site ergonomics program to formally and proactively seek out and address manufacturing/service ergonomic risks in new products during the design phase. Our site implemented cultural and operational changes to design ergonomics into the product, where it is often less costly and more effective than downstream, reactive ergo solutions. So far, these practices have been used in two new product launches, resulting in 68 design improvements, a 50 percent reduction to ergonomic injuries, and a 70 percent reduction in assembly time totaling $920K in operational and injury prevention savings.
Early Symptom Intervention - Addressing Symptoms, Not InjuriesHyundai Motor Manufacturing, Montgomery, ALThe automotive industry is a very tough environment on the human body. Hyundai has taken a step in the right direction of preventing Cumulative Trauma Disorders, by addressing symptoms, instead of injuries. Hyundai will present evidence that addressing CTD symptoms has reduced our CTD cases, by eliminating the symptoms of over 90% of the TMs experiencing CTD symptoms in 2012 alone.
RULA Android Mobile SoftwareNexteer Automotive Plant, Rio Grande de Sul, BrazilPlant 89 was using OWAS to analyze jobs in the plant and wanted to use a tool that provided more in depth analysis. The plant decided to use RULA, however, the paper version was cumbersome and not easily done on the plant floor. A Plant 89 Industrial Engineer took the initiative to create a RULA mobile app for Android phones. This resulted in electronic completion of a RULA analysis on the job site, in half the time, with the ability to quickly conduct multiple analyses and email the results.
Face-to-face Surveys of Fab EmployeesTexas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, Richardson, TexasLate reporting of ergonomics related concerns can delay corrective actions, thereby increasing risk of injury. As a proactive measure, a systematic interview system was developed to ensure wafer fab manufacturing employees are working comfortably and efficiently. Employees are surveyed periodically to determine if they are experiencing discomfort or have any ergonomics related concerns. If so, a request for a detailed ergonomic assessment can be submitted electronically so resolution can be tracked. This system prevents injuries, gives wafer fab employees an opportunity to voice ergonomics related concerns and is used to measure the effectiveness of the site's Ergonomics program.
The Cutting EdgeBridgestone, Morrison, TennesseeThe final step in the bladder assembly process requires the operator to manually trim the edge of the bladder with a razor blade in order for proper beadfiller to bead set. Teammate input allowed us to identify and correct an ergonomic issues and potential safety hazards associated with performing this job task. A new machine was designed that took away the physical component and ergonomic risk that previously existed in this job task.
TTK Sub Frame Line ManipulatorCaterpillar, Grenoble FranceThe current process requires the assembly operator to work in a tight space within the tractor frame. The team determined a high ergonomic risk rating as well as a fall hazard. The team was able to benchmark solutions as well test potential solution prior to the implementation of a solution. The team was able to significantly reduce the ergonomic risk, fall risk, and cost while increasing cycle time.
Multi Pattern Exhaust Manifold Stud Install Fixture at Cleveland EngineFord Motor Company Cleveland Engine Plant, Brookpark, OhioCleveland Engine was presented with build complexity of hand starting 6 to 8 studs for 8 different Exhaust Manifold patterns across 4 stations within a 30 second cycle time over 10 hour shifts. A “Lazy Susan” was developed to present the proper stud pattern fixture to the operator. The operator loads the studs into the fixture, the fixture is positioned to the manifold and all studs are secured at once. When the fixture is replaced, a flashing light indicates the correct fixture to load for the next engine.
"Danimal 3000" Drilling ToolGeneral Dynamics, Bath Iron Works, Bath, MEDrilling holes in a steel deck of a ship to install countermeasure wash-down nozzles requires a mechanic to kneel on a hard steel deck and hand bevel an area using a high vibratory tool. The process is very labor intensive and introduces a lot of ergonomic and safety concerns. Working with employees on their ideas and concepts, a prototype magnetic base drill and counter sinking bit was designed and built in-house. The mechanized solution eliminates the use of a high vibratory tool, reduces kneeling postures by 75%, reduces labor hours by 80%, improves the quality and accuracy of the holes and demonstrates an overall ROI of 200%.
Ergonomic Adapter for Drum Change ApplicationGoodyear Tire and Rubber, Gadsden, AlabamaAn off-the-shelf ergonomic cart was modified with a metal shaft to customize it for our application.
The Hidden Factory Gets Drilled!Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, GAHole preparation for aerospace solid fastener (rivet) installations is a straight forward "industry standard" process. Unfortunately, over the years, this process has been known to be somewhat challenging. Fortunately every mechanic knows how to handle this with a "work around". When asked why they use the work around, the answer has been "because we always do it this way"! Challenging these norms, and working to breakdown the hidden factory can significantly reduce ergonomics risk and labor costs. Safety, quality, and cost improvements can be made with the smallest of changes - even if that change is only .001".
Brush StrokesHonda of America MFG., Inc., Marysville, OHProduction associates apply a paint activator to the vehicle body prior to front and rear windshield installation to etch the paint and to help the glass adhere to the body better. Associates dispense this liquid chemical using a bottle with a brush tip, and insert two felt flow restrictors into the brush tip to control the chemical flow. Before, associates used a screwdriver to insert the felt flow restrictors, resulting in high hand force exertion and awkward wrist posture. The team built a fixture to make insertion of the felt flow restrictors into the brush tip more ergonomic and safe.
Easy Does It 2Honda of South Carolina Mfg, Inc., Timmonsville, SCAfter the ATV fuel tanks are molded a drilling process is done to open the fuel fill neck and the fuel on/off lever assembly holes. In order to set the fuel tank in the drill machine, metal clamping fixtures must be secured to the fuel tank, then placed in the drill machine. When placing the metal clamping fixtures to the tank the associates must use grip force and pushing forces to close the top clamping fixture and pin assembly measuring at 32lbs of force. The lower tank metal fixture is installed with bolts using an air tool. The complete process takes 62 seconds, 50 seconds of the procedure was a manual material handling task. This time was used to attach and detach metal fixtures while other tanks are being drilled in the machine. In addition to the ergonomic risk associated with attaching the clamping fixtures, this procedure was highly repetitive requiring the associates to flip the fuel tank over numerous times.
Piston Compressor Tool Reduces Force, Awkward PosturesNorfolk Southern, Shaffer's Crossing, VANorfolk Southern has over 4000 Mechanical employees maintaining 4200 locomotives at over 100 facilities. The piston and other components contained in a locomotive power assembly must be changed out after a certain amount of locomotive running. The task involved significant force and awkward body postures to push down on a T handled tool to align/seat the new piston in the refurbished power assembly unit. Employees were concerned about the difficulty of the task. Employees in that department took the initiative to develop a new tool to assist. By testing and constructing a lever and fulcrum type tool, they were able to significantly reduce the force and awkward postures of aligning/seating and pushing down the new piston into the power assembly.
Articulating Motor MoverPPG, Delaware, OhioThe Articulating Motor Mover is used to remove motors and pumps, as well as set them into place. This results in no manual lifting and allows the task to be done with one employee, rather than two. This employee-driven solution is comprised of 100% repurposed materials.
Fluorescent Bulb CartPratt & Whitney, Dallas, TXA fluorescent bulb cart was designed and constructed out of surplus plywood and hardware at a total cost of $20 to be used for transporting new and spent bulbs throughout the 201,000sf facility. The cart was created for three purposes: 1) to satisfy a compliance audit Point of Generation (P.O.G.) requirement for the proper storage of used fluorescent bulbs, 2) to transport large quantity of bulbs, eliminating multiple trips to maintenance area to retrieve new and return spent bulbs to P.O.G. station, thus increasing productivity, and 3) to resolve the ergonomic risk created by the manual transport of large quantities of bulbs and increase ladder safety.
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) Part Processing BoxPratt & Whitney, East Arlington, TXOn a shift by shift basis 5 days per week, Pratt & Whitney Dallas Airfoil Repair Operations (DARO) operators have historically been required to stand for extended periods of time, submerging their gloved hands in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) oil or fluid in an ongoing effort to tighten and loosen (part) tooling fixtures. This process and equipment is not new to our industry but rather an antiquated method that improved little for our application over many years. The fact these machines were designed to submerge the entire tank (part and fixture included) in fluid created Ergonomic nightmares. Through the utilization of the Achieving Competitive Excellence (ACE) and Ergonomic Tools, safety-minded employees began thinking outside the proverbial EDM box, looking for new and more ergonomically structured Improvements across this entire process. The frugal yet undeniably effective project to follow is a testament of employee engagement and ACE in action at Pratt & Whitney.
The Timken TuggerTimken Shiloh Plant, Rutherfordton, NCWe created a unique and specialized mechanical lifting machine capable of reaching into, under, and through machinery and equipment in space constrained locations for lifting heavy machine components. Previously, these components had to be wrestled out of or into place by a single individual. By doing so, there was a significant risk of MSD's. Its simple innovative design allows it to fold and drop down so that it can move into the same space occupied by a repairman or technician in a kneeling or crouching position. If a man can get to the work, so can the "Timken Tugger".
Hood Adjustment ToolToyota Motor Manufacturing Canada, Inc., Woodstock, Ontario, CanadaAfter the Toyota RAV4 hood is attached to the vehicle, it often needs to be adjusted to meet quality requirements for body alignment. One team member held the hood up while a second team member used both hands to push it from side to side with up to 70 kilograms of force. Using an in-house developed hood adjustment tool, a single team member can now adjust to specifications using only one hand and minimal force (5kgf), resulting in improvements to ergonomics, productivity, and quality, as well as significant cost savings.
Ergo CarouselToyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, Inc., Georgetown, KYEach year TMMK Assembly Line 2 Team Members (TMs) install over 800,000 rocker panels on the Toyota Venza and Camry. Every 15 minutes, a conveyance TM delivers two in-line, rectangular dolly trays loaded with 8 rockers each. One 6 foot long rocker panel is installed every 55 seconds along the exterior lower portion of the vehicle. Both dolly handling and lineside part retrieval posed ergonomics-related risks due to high push forces, awkward postures, and high frequency. The conveyance and production TMs working this process embarked on a collaborative project to redesign the dolly from a traditional dolly tray to an innovative, rotating parts carousel. In the process, both ergonomics and productivity were improved, leading to substantial savings.
Magnetic Hose Clamp Installation ToolToyota Motor Manufacturing Texas, Inc., San Antonio, TXToyota Motor Manufacturing, TX, Inc. (TMMTX) is home to the Toyota Tundra and Tacoma, building 800-900 vehicles per day. The Assembly Shop faces many WMSD risks due to upper extremity force, posture, and repetition. This Shop has focused on reducing hand and wrist injuries, which account for 35% of its ergonomics-related injuries. One concern was using traditional, spring-loaded pliers to install hose clamps, resulting in force and awkward wrist postures. Through considerable experimentation, the pliers were magnetized and redesigned to make the task easier and faster, generating significant savings.
The Crunch TestCordis Corporation, Miami Lakes, FLThe extrusion process at our facility has several Critical to Quality (CtQ) characteristics for its manufactured components, one of them being no delamination in the product. Delamination is the separation between two coats of material, top and base coat of the catheter unit. No delamination is determined via an in-line test known as the Crunch Test, which requires the line operator to inspect approximately 120 units every 2 hours during an 8-hour shift. The Crunch Test required the operator to apply 25 lbs of force on each unit by using a set of pliers. This process is repeated 10 times for each unit and it is performed on 10 units every 30 minutes for each lot. The repetitive motion of this test and the force applied created discomfort on the employee due to neck flexion, palm down-forearm pronation, and hand and power grip. The key objective of this project was to implement an effective, reliable, and safe way to conduct the Crunch Test and minimize (or eliminate) the ergonomic risk factors stated above.
Fabricated Safety PedestalsElliott Group, Jeannette, PAThroughout the manufacturing of multi-stage steam turbines, several of our processes involved the use of heavy, cast iron, bottle jacks to secure the unit to the shop floor or a steel pallet. Not only were the jacks cumbersome to move manually but they created potential hazards for the assemblers. The potential for the bottle jacks to slide out from under the turbine (weighing upwards of 5,500 lbs.) posed a great safety hazard. Our new process employs fabricated pedestals that resemble the production pedestals on which the unit will permanently rest. This has eliminated the bottle jacks hazard completely from the process.
CIP Projects Leads to Ergonomic Risk ReductionEthicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Juarez, Chihuahua, MexicoIn the Xcel lines had a path printing process to print information of the product in the cap. The printing is done by two equipments because the printing is done into different sides of the cap. One operator ran both equipments. We have 9 Xcel lines running 2 shift so a total of 18 employees where assign to this task. The path printing equipment had capacity of generating more output but ran at slower pace because other stations have lager production cycle. It was decided to run the process independently in OPEN which is a no production area where they lubricate different components use in the line. The key objective of this project was to implement changes to reduce ergonomic risk factors and increase output of the process.
Heavy Duty Truck Mirror Relief StanchionFord Kentucky, Louisville, KYA design change increased the weight of our side mirrors over 300%, from 3.7 to 15.2 pounds. Operators had to hold the mirror with one hand while routing the wiring into the door before it was secured. This increase in weight was stressful to the operator. In a short amount of time in production, we've had several operators report injuries. We trialed several options that would manage the weight increase of the mirror. We finalized on the “Relief Stanchion”. This Stanchion allows the operator to reduce the weight in hand. The Stanchion was developed, built and installed with in-house resources.
Handling Lamination SolutionGeneral Electric, Nogales, Sonora, MexicoOverall process is to wrap copper or aluminum lamination into a coil. A force of 137 lbs. was required to pull lamination from stock roll. The operator crouched underneath the lamination, causing awkward postures, and repetitive hammering was needed to flatten the coil. A lamination feeder and a cart that supports the weight of material while routing to arbor were created and the crane use was eliminated. Machine controls were changed enabling the operator to work standing up and a regulator controls the tension, therefore reducing hammering. The project eliminated ergonomic hazards and reduced set up time by 75%.
G550 Pylon Aircraft Assembly LiftingGulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, GAThe G550 Pylon Assembly is a very large aircraft assembly that required two people to lift and carry 105 pounds in order to load this aircraft assembly onto transportation dollies for travel to our aircraft assembly line. This task was not a very user friendly operation plus the customer would then have to remove and disassemble this awkward and heavy aircraft assembly also. The goal of our team was to make this process easier for all involved.
The EnforcersHonda of South Carolina Mfg, Inc., Timmonsville, SCInstalling rubber grommets to parts can be very challenging and stressful on the body. The grommets are tight fitting rubber insulators used to silence vibration on the all terrain vehicles. Most models we produce have 10 -16 sets of grommets. Installing the grommets is a physically demanding procedure creating multiple ergonomic risk factors. Risk factors include static power grip while using a hand tool to install the grommets, sustained wrist flexion and elbow abduction. These risk factors make an uncomfortable work environment for the associates. The Honda of South Carolina 2012 Ergo cup entry challenged this same risk and eliminated it in the plastics department by in house automation. This year the assembly department improved this countermeasure by applying pneumatic grommet pullers to the toolbox lid assembly area.
Ergonomic Solution for the Zipper Rolls Set UpJohnson & Johnson de Colombia, Cali, ColumbiaThe handling of the zipper rolls in the Baby Wipes area used to be performed by operators without any mechanical help. The weight of this packing material fluctuates between 35 and 40 kilos, exposing workers to a high ergonomic and safety risk during the execution of the task which is manually setting up the roll to the zipper decoiler.
Maintenance Pump Slide Used To Reduce Awkward LiftingJohnson & Johnson Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Rochester, NYA multidiscipline team was used to solve a longstanding issue associated with placing pump motors onto machines which coat film used medical testing. This team was made up of 6 associates who perform the work, an engineer, a supervisor, a manager, and an ergonomist who was new to this facility. Through great communications, employee involvement, and teamwork a high risk potential task was reduced to low risk potential using a creative one of a kind solution costing $1,400 USD. The prototype solution worked so well according to the 6 operators, the team is in the process of purchasing 7 additional maintenance pump slides, one for each machine, plus 1 back-up. Awkward lifting was eliminated by the use of a custom designed slide which positions the 40 pound pumps in / out of the machines. This pump slide / bridge platform was nicknamed the "scorpion" due to its overall shape, and maneuverability.
Pipe Core Brake-OutPacific States Cast Iron Pipe Company, Provo, UTA sand core is cast into the end of each pipe to form the gasket retainer and the interior of the pipe bell. To remove the tough sacrificial core, a 4 lb hammer is used at 56.2 lbs force and 532 ft-lbs energy per swing, totaling 5320 ft-lbs of human generated energy per pipe. This task is performed up to 200 times per shift while standing arm's length from fresh cast 1400F pipes. By installing an automatic core cutter the manual hammering to break the core out of the pipe is eliminated.
From Scraper to ShakerBridgestone, Morrison, TNWe will be giving a presentation on the problems that existed when manually scraping residual carbon black in our railcars with a hand-held scraper. The new method incorporates an automated railcar shaker that will drastically reduce the "wear and tear" on our teammate's legs going up and down stairs. This will also eliminated the possibility for an upper body injury caused by the manual scraping of the rail cars.
The Automated Multiple SplitterCordis Corporation, Miami Lakes, FLOur facility manufactures components (catheters) that save lives, hence quality is of upmost importance and with that several inspection requirements become a priority. One of those requirements is zero silver flaking inside the catheter. To be able to determine that, in 2010 the single splitter tool was introduced to the manufacturing floor. The single splitter had for purpose to allow the operator to manually split the catheter in half and conduct a visual inspection on the unit. This manual method of splitting caused significant strain on the operator's forearm and hand. As a result of the manual splitting task, 3 LWDC and 2 OSHA Recordable Cases (a total of 5 recordable cases) were documented, resulting in numerous hours of physical therapy and conservative treatment as well as 2 surgeries for 2 out of the 5 cases. The company incurred approximately $105,500 in medical costs (this did not include employee compensation during lost time). The key objective of the Automated Multiple Splitter project was to implement an effective, reliable and ergonomic solution that would eliminate the mechanical stress to the arm and hand, and shoulder abduction risks that resulted from the single splitting task.
Kaizen Project Reduces Ergonomics Risk and Improve Production OutputCordis de Mexico, Juarez, Chihuahua, MexicoDuring the Kaizen events that are held every month we have different themes, one of those themes is ergonomics so all the project in that month are focuses on ergonomics topics. One of those projects came from Feeders line. The Kaizen was generated from the Assembly rod station that presented the fallowing ergonomic problems: pinch grip, repetition and wrist extension.
Engine Build Cart Hold DownCummins Inc., Jamestown, NYThe task of holding an engine down on the engine build cart requires a locking strap with a tensioning cam that required up to 70 lbs. of force and very poor posture to fasten. This is performed on every engine that goes down the assembly line (approximately every 2 minutes).
ACB Lifting ImprovementCummins Power Generation, ChinaThe problem involved installing a large Auxiliary Circuit Breaker (ACB) into the side of a large generator. The ACB was installed using a hoist fixture that bolted to the top of the ACB. Unfortunately, when the ACB was lifted into the air, it's center of gravity caused it to rotate 30 degrees which meant installing it into the side of the generator required (3) people pushing/shoving the ACB to hold it down while one of them tightened the ACB in place.
LEAN Reconfiguration Though DMAIC Road Map Process Leads to Ergonomic Risk RedEES, Juarez, Chihuahua, MexicoAs part of lean transformation strategy, RL production line was selected as one to be evaluated to indentify and reduce different types of waste generated on it. The key objective of this project was to implement practical changes to reduce ergonomic risk factors, and at the 60 Ergonomic Risk Factors across 16 workstations: 46 High Risk; 14 Moderate Risk.
Jack the RipperEthicon, Inc - A Johnson and Johnson Company, San Angelo, TXJack the Ripper is a semi-automated product teardown process specifically designed to eliminate manual teardown of rejected product. Use of this machine reduces ergonomic risk and processing time while maintaining safety and product quality. This semi-automated machine significantly reduced pinch grips, wrist extension and flexion and product damage while salvaging rejected product for reworking. The machine was well received by all users, provided a 95% reduction in existing ergonomic risk, and provided significant cost savings associated with hard and soft costs for injuries and loss of production time.
DuraStation Production CarouselGE Energy Management, Haaksbergen, NetherlandsAt GE in Haaksbergen, a compact, four-station, rotating production carousel was developed to produce GE's robust (max. 100lbs) DuraStation Electrical Vehicle Chargers. Each workstation is completely adjustable in height and the product can be rotated 360 around the horizontal axis. Assembly operations can be done sitting or standing, on each side of the DuraStation, without manual lifting or handling the product. The individual height and angle adjustments per workstation create optimal ergonomic assembly conditions for every operator. Building DuraStations on this balanced line with simplified assembly tasks per station and built in quality assurance reduced production time by 46%.
Fuel Filler Pipe and Canister Filter Subassembly RackHonda Manufacturing of Alabama, Lincoln, ALFuel Filler Pipes and Canister Filters are subassembled prior to installation. A rack had to be developed to transport parts to the install point. A transport rack was designed so that part placement and removal is within ergonomic guidelines for posture, reach and push and pull force. Racks material could not compromise quality and the parts have to be secure during transport. The final rack is a mailbox-style which optimizes horizontal reach. Vertical heights were set to prevent awkward posture for placement and removal. The concept was reviewed and approved by Safety and Quality to ensure ergonomic s and quality.
2013 Accord Oil Seal Plug InstallationHonda of America MFG., Inc., Anna, OHHonda developed a new four-cylinder engine for the 2013 Accord model. This new engine uses a different method to close or seal the engine block main oil gallery, an oil seal plug. This new oil seal plug requires high thumb insertion forces to set it on the engine block. Our team developed better method to install this oil seal plug to be ergonomically safe, which also ensures proper setting of the plug into the engine block to reduce the likelihood of oil leaks.
Ergonomic Solution for the Strip-of-Plastic-bag Packing AreaJohnson & Johnson de Colombia, Cali, ColumbiaAt the end of the Sanpro lines, a strip of seven towel bags is manually packed; this task consists in a sitting down worker pushing with one hand the seven packs of towels into the strip of bags and once the seven packs are into the strip of bags they go to the next workstation to continue with the process.
Automatic Rack Ball Screw Assembly MachineNexteer Automotive, El Marqués, Querétaro, MéxicoPlant 65 manufactures “rack assist” electric power steering for the automotive industry. This is a high volume, high value, product that has a salvage process to avoid potentially seven million dollars in annual scrap costs. This process involved manually wiping grease off of the entire rack assembly where an average 900 pieces were cleaned by ten operators over three shifts. Repetitive wrist twisting and awkward arm movements resulted in numerous injuries and verbal complaints. Engineering developed a simple machine with a motor that slowly spins the rack so that a fiber fixture removes the grease. Ergonomic risks were significantly reduced and there was a 75% reduction in cycle time.
Scissors Sharpness Testing Platform Improves Poultry Processing PerformanceTyson- Noel, MOWolff Industries, Inc has partnered with Tyson Foods to develop a scissors sharpness test platform that objectively measures sharpness across the entire cutting profile. Dull scissors are a large contributor to ergonomic issues in processing poultry. Wolff was looking for new and innovative technology to determine if, when, and why our scissors were dull and negatively impacting the processing floor. The tester was developed with the help of multiple Tyson facilities and corporate staff. A six -month trial using this technology was conducted to monitor tool and operator input that impacted scissors sharpness. The results were dramatic.